HIS 121. Chapter 4 War and Revolution. Four Major trends of the 19 th century that greatly affected the early 20 th century: Nationalism - a group of people of the same ethnic background, same history, and/or same culture should have their own nation-state
War and Revolution
Four Major trends of the 19th century that greatly affected the early 20th century:
Alliances - joining in a pact with other nations, not because you are friends, but because you all have similar fears; alliances are ever-changing; By the early 20th century there were 2 major alliances
These 4 major trends of the 19th century would become the 4 major causes of the First World War, the War to End All Wars
The two Balkan Wars increased the tensions in the area and in other areas of Europe; Ex.: Austria was suspicious of Serbia
It didn’t work out this way for the Germans. Germany had a 2-front war on its hands. The war quickly became a stalemate.
Serbia was defeated by Germany and Austria-Hungary in September 1915
Submarines:Unterseeboots or U-boats; modern one designed by 2 Americans, John Holland and Simon Lake; offered design to U.S. Navy but were turned down; offered design to highest bidder: the Germans
On 7 May 1915, Americans were affected by the German U-boat with the sinking of the Lusitania
The influx of American troops in 1917 & in 1918 helped bring an end to the war
Italy played a less important role at the peace conference than it thought it should have
New nations were formed from the former Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
Marxism first appeared and began to take hold in Russia in the late 1880s
At a party conference in Brussels and in London in 1903, the majority of the delegates supported Lenin’s plan for a revolution, hence they were called Bolsheviks or majorityites. They were a majority only because those who disagreed chose not to attend.
Russia entered World War I hoping to unite its people; it did not.
Russia had some early victories, followed by many losses
Soldiers were poorly trained, poorly led, and poorly fed; many deserted or mutinied
Lenin believed it was time for his revolution and returned from exile in April 1917 with the help of Germany
Red Army ultimately won out and the communists established a proletariat dictatorship
Russia was then renamed the USSR in 1922
By the time of Lenin’s death in 1924, the Communist Party was privileged, conformist, and bureaucratic.
The only thing that truly got the United States out of the Depression was the start of World War II
Surrealists wanted to shock with dreamlike and violent pictures; ex: Salvadore Dali
Hollywood films and radio shows were very popular -- escapist entertainment during a rough time