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HIS 121. Chapter 4 War and Revolution. Four Major trends of the 19 th century that greatly affected the early 20 th century: Nationalism - a group of people of the same ethnic background, same history, and/or same culture should have their own nation-state

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His 121

HIS 121

Chapter 4

War and Revolution


  • Four Major trends of the 19th century that greatly affected the early 20th century:

    • Nationalism - a group of people of the same ethnic background, same history, and/or same culture should have their own nation-state

    • Imperialism - taking over land that is already inhabited and organized

    • Militarism - the build-up of new weapons in Europe; new weapons from the Industrial Revolution


  • Alliances - joining in a pact with other nations, not because you are friends, but because you all have similar fears; alliances are ever-changing; By the early 20th century there were 2 major alliances

    • Triple Entente: Great Britain, France, & Russia

    • Triple Alliance: Italy, Germany, & Austria-Hungary



Crisis in the balkans 1908 1913
Crisis in the Balkans1908-1913

  • Austria-Hungary, a large empire on the European mainland, annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908; A-H had been protecting them since 1878

  • This action angered Serbia because it, too, had wanted to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Russia gave its support to Serbia

  • Tensions were growing

  • Russia finally backed down because their recent defeat by the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905, had left them weakened and feeling humiliated


  • One crisis averted

  • A second crisis occurred

    • 1912 - Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece formed the Balkan League and defeated the Turks in the First Balkan War

    • A Second Balkan War broke out when the alliance couldn’t decide how to divide the spoils of war

    • 1913 - Greece, Serbia, Romania, and the Ottoman Empire defeated Bulgaria



Events leading to world war i
Events leading to World War I in other areas of Europe; Ex.: Austria was suspicious of Serbia

  • 28 June 1914 -- Assassination of Austria-Hungary’s Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia while visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia. They were killed by a member of the Black Hand, GavriloPrincip

  • 23 July -- Ultimatum sent from Austria-Hungary to Serbia only because A-H had backing from Germany; unreasonable demands with a time limit attached; Serbian response was late

  • 28 July -- Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia ( only with German backing)


Assassination of franz ferdinand and his wife sophia
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand and His Wife, Sophia in other areas of Europe; Ex.: Austria was suspicious of Serbia


Gavrilo princip
Gavrilo in other areas of Europe; Ex.: Austria was suspicious of SerbiaPrincip


  • 30 July in other areas of Europe; Ex.: Austria was suspicious of Serbia – Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany

  • By 4 August

    • Germany declared war on Russia and France and walked through neutral Belgium

    • France declared war on Germany

    • Britain declared war on Germany because it entered neutral Belgium


Attack on liege belgium by germans
Attack on Liege, Belgium by Germans in other areas of Europe; Ex.: Austria was suspicious of Serbia


  • Schlieffen in other areas of Europe; Ex.: Austria was suspicious of Serbia Plan

    • German plan in case of a 2-front war

    • While one front is mobilizing, quickly take over the second front and concentrate on the first

      It didn’t work out this way for the Germans. Germany had a 2-front war on its hands. The war quickly became a stalemate.


  • Germans were stopped 20 miles from Paris in other areas of Europe; Ex.: Austria was suspicious of Serbia

  • Both sides dug in; there were 2 lines of trenches from the English Channel to the border of Switzerland

  • This Western Front would remain virtually the same for 4 years

  • Italy changed sides in 1915

  • The Ottoman Empire joined with Germany in 1914

  • In the east, Russia had many defeats

  • The cost in lives for Russia: 2.5 million killed, captured, or wounded


  • Serbia was defeated by Germany and Austria-Hungary in September 1915

  • The Great Slaughter

    • Brutal battles were fought to take a foot or two of land

      • In 10 months at Verdun (1916) 700,000 men lost their lives;1/3 of a million men were killed on each side

      • At the Battle of the Somme River (1916) ½ million were lost on each side; French won just a few feet


Verdun 1916
Verdun, 1916 September 1915


Somme
Somme September 1915


New weapons casualties
New Weapons /Casualties September 1915

  • New weapons caused these casualties

    • Airplane: initially used to count troops of the enemy; later used in some fighting but not very effectively

    • Poisonous Mustard Gas: devastating; wind shifts could blow the gas back on those who released it, so it wasn’t as effective as they thought it would be

    • Machine Gun: could mow down advancing troops who walked in the old infantry style; very effective

    • Tanks: developed by the British; armored vehicles that could drive through an enemy camp; at first not used effectively; that was corrected


  • Submarines: September 1915Unterseeboots or U-boats; modern one designed by 2 Americans, John Holland and Simon Lake; offered design to U.S. Navy but were turned down; offered design to highest bidder: the Germans

  • Each u-boat was equipped with 19 torpedoes; made waters around Britain very dangerous

  • U-boats didn’t fight by the old rules of the sea; they were thought to be an immoral weapon because they used the element of surprise


  • On 7 May 1915, Americans were affected by the German U-boat with the sinking of the Lusitania

    • 139 Americans died and a total of 1198 of 1959 passengers died

    • President Woodrow Wilson of the U.S. was quite upset because of the loss of innocent people and because the freedom of the seas had been violated

    • Americans were neutral

    • After a series of messages between Germany and the U.S., the Germans agreed to not attack passenger vessels


U s enters the war
U.S. Enters the War with the sinking of the

  • The United States entered the war in 1917 because

    • freedom of the seas had been violated

    • innocent lives had been lost

    • commerce had been interrupted

    • shift in American sentiments

    • We were better prepared in 1917 to go to war

    • Zimmerman Telegram


  • Zimmerman Telegram with the sinking of the

    • said that Germany would finance a Mexican attack on the U.S. to keep the U.S. from entering the war in Europe on the French/British side

    • when Germany won, it would give back to Mexico all the territory the U.S. had taken from them

    • this was the last straw for the U.S.


War affected all people
War Affected All People with the sinking of the

  • An increase in government powers

  • An increase in the size of government

  • The use of propaganda to manipulate public opinion

  • Women took over men’s jobs when men went off to war

  • Military draft imposed

  • Factories produced war products

  • Food rationing in some countries

  • Civil liberties were removed or threatened

  • Unemployment ended



  • The peace conference was dominated by 3 leaders: an end to the war

    • France -- Georges Clemenceau – wanted revenge

    • Britain – David Lloyd George – more or less agreed with France

    • United States -- Woodrow Wilson – wanted a just peace; 14 Points


  • Italy played a less important role at the peace conference than it thought it should have

  • Germany wasn’t invited

  • The Treaty of Versailles, the peace agreement, was a compromise; Wilson sacrificed most of his 14 Points but got the League of Nations and self-determination of nations

  • Vengeful peace that would be a major cause for World War II


Treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles than it thought it should have

  • Signed on the 28 June 1919 by the new Weimar government in Germany because it felt it had no choice; Germans were starving

  • Terms:

    • German army limited to 100,000 men and they would have long enlistments

    • Could not have submarines or an air force (Luftwaffe)

    • Austria could not merge with Germany

    • Alsace-Lorraine went back to France and sections of Poland to a new Polish state


  • New nations were formed from the former Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire

  • Germany had to pay for the entire cost of the war: reparations totaled 132 billion gold marks ($33 billion)

  • Rhineland was demilitarized

  • Germany was blamed entirely for the war and was left humiliated

  • All nations but the United States approved the treaty


Results of the war
Results of the War the Ottoman Empire

  • A weakened League of Nations because U.S. would not join

  • A communist Russia

  • Shaky S.E. Asia and Europe; there were new unstable nations

  • U.S. isolationism

  • Britain refused to help France in future conflicts


  • France was alone with Germany on the continent the Ottoman Empire

  • Germany was humiliated and resentful. They had trouble paying the reparations. They had a shaky economy with high inflation. This caused France to occupy the Ruhr Valley for 15 years to make sure Germany paid its debt


The russian revolution
The Russian Revolution the Ottoman Empire

  • Russia finally joined the Industrial Revolution in the early 20th century and the working conditions were bad

  • Russian worker:

    • worked an 11 ½ hour day

    • lived in a shared hovel with 10 others

    • strikes were illegal

    • unions were illegal

    • had no contact with employer


  • Marxism the Ottoman Empire first appeared and began to take hold in Russia in the late 1880s

    • Vladimir Ulyanov Lenin

      • became a Marxist leader in Russia in 1890s

      • believed in revolution as a way to bring about change

      • wanted to inspire peasants to revolt

        At a party conference in Brussels and in London in 1903, the majority of the delegates supported Lenin’s plan for a revolution, hence they were called Bolsheviks or majorityites. They were a majority only because those who disagreed chose not to attend.


  • Tsar Nicholas II sent Lenin into exile for his ideas the Ottoman Empire

  • As a result, the revolutionary movement in Russia was led by the Mensheviks or the minority

  • Conditions in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries:

    • very poor for the peasants who were 90% of the population

    • Russia lost their war with Japan 1904-1905

    • starving Russians approached the Tsar’s palace asking for bread and an 8-hour day; military fired on them

    • The result was Bloody Sunday or the First Russian Revolution, 1905


  • the country went on strike the Ottoman Empire

  • Tsar had to promise them a Duma, a parliamentary body, to get things back under his control

  • Duma really had little or no power

  • nothing had changed

    Russia entered World War I hoping to unite its people; it did not.

    Russia had some early victories, followed by many losses

    Soldiers were poorly trained, poorly led, and poorly fed; many deserted or mutinied


  • Peasants at home were starving the Ottoman Empire

  • There were angry marches in the capital

  • Nicholas II refused to share his power

  • His troops joined the marchers

  • Nicholas knew it was over for him

  • He abdicated his throne in late February 1917

  • The Duma took charge under Alexander Kerensky

  • He and the Duma couldn’t stop the chaos


  • Lenin believed it was time for his revolution and returned from exile in April 1917 with the help of Germany

  • Leon Trotsky and Lenin’s followers finally seized control in October 1917

  • Bolsheviks were then in power

  • Civil war immediately broke out -- the White Army (Tsar’s backers) vs. the Red Army (Lenin’s backers now called communists)


  • Red Army ultimately won out and the communists established a proletariat dictatorship

  • The first thing Lenin did was to fulfill his agreement with Germany; he pulled Russia out of World War I and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918

    • This gave away nearly ¼ of Russia’s territory and 1/3 of the population, minerals, and factories to Germany


  • Lenin could then concentrate on Russia

    • He established War Communism and then the NEP or New Economic Policy

    • In it he nationalized the banks and industry

    • He established universal education

    • He gave rights to women

    • He allowed some free enterprise

      Russia was then renamed the USSR in 1922

      By the time of Lenin’s death in 1924, the Communist Party was privileged, conformist, and bureaucratic.



1920s
1920s

  • World War I had been so brutal that many Europeans and Americans worked to find a way to true peace

  • They thought they had found it with the Kellog-Briand Pact of 1928

  • The League of Nations also worked on disarmament


The great depression
The Great Depression

  • In the 1920s the economy in many countries appeared to be strong

  • Food and goods were being produced at a high rate

  • In World War I the United States produced enough food and materiel to supply the U.S. and European allies

  • In the 1920s we were producing at the same rate as in World War I even though Europe was producing its own goods again


  • So we ended up with overproduction and underconsumption

  • This led to a glut, lay-offs, closed factories, and loans being called in

  • This shaky economy led to the crash of the stock market in October 1929 in New York

  • This crash affected other countries and colonies all over the world through loans, investments, and trade


  • 1932 was the worst year of the Depression

    • In Britain – 1 worker in 4 was unemployed

    • In Germany – 6 million workers or 40% were unemployed

    • Between 1929 and 1932 industrial production dropped 50% in the United States and 40% in Germany


  • Governments were at a loss for what to do

    • Some countries turned to Marxism & Communism

    • Some tried to have a more active democracy, like in the United States with Franklin D. Roosevelt elected in 1932

    • Some turned to dictatorship

    • Some had mixed economies


  • In the United States:

    • economist John Maynard Keynes recommended deficit spending to jump-start the economy

    • there were many government programs

      The only thing that truly got the United States out of the Depression was the start of World War II


  • In Germany:

    • the Weimar Republic was their new government

    • it had little support from the people

    • there was a shaky economy

    • in 1925 they got a new president who was a monarchist, a military man, and not in favor of a republic

    • There was some prosperity from 1924 to 1929; then came the crash

    • Depression, discontent, and fear allowed extremists like Adolf Hitler to rise to power by 1932


Art

  • Disillusionment of the 1920s and 1930s led to an avant-garde movement in art

  • It was seen as a new way to view reality and deal with all the anxiety of the time

  • Dadaists:

    • wanted absolute freedom of expression

    • revolted against the past

    • showed the darker side of life


  • Surrealists wanted to shock with dreamlike and violent pictures; ex: Salvadore Dali

  • Abstract artists showed a new view of reality

  • Bauhaus school of architecture produced high-rise towers of steel and glass


Writers
Writers

  • James Joyce wrote streams of consciousness, inner monologues

  • Ernest Hemingway, Theodore Dreiser, and Sinclair Lewis told it like it was


  • Hollywood films and radio shows were very popular -- escapist entertainment during a rough time

  • World War I, the 1920s, and the 1930s truly shattered the old and sent people searching for the new

  • During this period we also see the United States rise in importance in world affairs


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