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HIS 121. Chapter 4 War and Revolution. Four Major trends of the 19 th century that greatly affected the early 20 th century: Nationalism - a group of people of the same ethnic background, same history, and/or same culture should have their own nation-state

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HIS 121

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His 121

HIS 121

Chapter 4

War and Revolution

His 121

  • Four Major trends of the 19th century that greatly affected the early 20th century:

    • Nationalism - a group of people of the same ethnic background, same history, and/or same culture should have their own nation-state

    • Imperialism - taking over land that is already inhabited and organized

    • Militarism - the build-up of new weapons in Europe; new weapons from the Industrial Revolution

His 121

  • Alliances - joining in a pact with other nations, not because you are friends, but because you all have similar fears; alliances are ever-changing; By the early 20th century there were 2 major alliances

    • Triple Entente: Great Britain, France, & Russia

    • Triple Alliance: Italy, Germany, & Austria-Hungary

His 121

  • These 4 major trends of the 19th century would become the 4 major causes of the First World War, the War to End All Wars

Crisis in the balkans 1908 1913

Crisis in the Balkans1908-1913

  • Austria-Hungary, a large empire on the European mainland, annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908; A-H had been protecting them since 1878

  • This action angered Serbia because it, too, had wanted to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Russia gave its support to Serbia

  • Tensions were growing

  • Russia finally backed down because their recent defeat by the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905, had left them weakened and feeling humiliated

His 121

  • One crisis averted

  • A second crisis occurred

    • 1912 - Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece formed the Balkan League and defeated the Turks in the First Balkan War

    • A Second Balkan War broke out when the alliance couldn’t decide how to divide the spoils of war

    • 1913 - Greece, Serbia, Romania, and the Ottoman Empire defeated Bulgaria

His 121

  • The two Balkan Wars increased the tensions in the area and in other areas of Europe; Ex.: Austria was suspicious of Serbia

  • Alliances reaffirmed their promise to help one another in a crisis

  • These tensions would finally explode during the summer of 1914

Events leading to world war i

Events leading to World War I

  • 28 June 1914 -- Assassination of Austria-Hungary’s Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia while visiting Sarajevo, Bosnia. They were killed by a member of the Black Hand, GavriloPrincip

  • 23 July -- Ultimatum sent from Austria-Hungary to Serbia only because A-H had backing from Germany; unreasonable demands with a time limit attached; Serbian response was late

  • 28 July -- Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia ( only with German backing)

Assassination of franz ferdinand and his wife sophia

Assassination of Franz Ferdinand and His Wife, Sophia

Gavrilo princip


His 121

  • 30 July – Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany

  • By 4 August

    • Germany declared war on Russia and France and walked through neutral Belgium

    • France declared war on Germany

    • Britain declared war on Germany because it entered neutral Belgium

Attack on liege belgium by germans

Attack on Liege, Belgium by Germans

His 121

  • Schlieffen Plan

    • German plan in case of a 2-front war

    • While one front is mobilizing, quickly take over the second front and concentrate on the first

      It didn’t work out this way for the Germans. Germany had a 2-front war on its hands. The war quickly became a stalemate.

His 121

  • Germans were stopped 20 miles from Paris

  • Both sides dug in; there were 2 lines of trenches from the English Channel to the border of Switzerland

  • This Western Front would remain virtually the same for 4 years

  • Italy changed sides in 1915

  • The Ottoman Empire joined with Germany in 1914

  • In the east, Russia had many defeats

  • The cost in lives for Russia: 2.5 million killed, captured, or wounded

His 121

  • Serbia was defeated by Germany and Austria-Hungary in September 1915

  • The Great Slaughter

    • Brutal battles were fought to take a foot or two of land

      • In 10 months at Verdun (1916) 700,000 men lost their lives;1/3 of a million men were killed on each side

      • At the Battle of the Somme River (1916) ½ million were lost on each side; French won just a few feet

Verdun 1916

Verdun, 1916



New weapons casualties

New Weapons /Casualties

  • New weapons caused these casualties

    • Airplane: initially used to count troops of the enemy; later used in some fighting but not very effectively

    • Poisonous Mustard Gas: devastating; wind shifts could blow the gas back on those who released it, so it wasn’t as effective as they thought it would be

    • Machine Gun: could mow down advancing troops who walked in the old infantry style; very effective

    • Tanks: developed by the British; armored vehicles that could drive through an enemy camp; at first not used effectively; that was corrected

His 121

  • Submarines:Unterseeboots or U-boats; modern one designed by 2 Americans, John Holland and Simon Lake; offered design to U.S. Navy but were turned down; offered design to highest bidder: the Germans

  • Each u-boat was equipped with 19 torpedoes; made waters around Britain very dangerous

  • U-boats didn’t fight by the old rules of the sea; they were thought to be an immoral weapon because they used the element of surprise

His 121

  • On 7 May 1915, Americans were affected by the German U-boat with the sinking of the Lusitania

    • 139 Americans died and a total of 1198 of 1959 passengers died

    • President Woodrow Wilson of the U.S. was quite upset because of the loss of innocent people and because the freedom of the seas had been violated

    • Americans were neutral

    • After a series of messages between Germany and the U.S., the Germans agreed to not attack passenger vessels

U s enters the war

U.S. Enters the War

  • The United States entered the war in 1917 because

    • freedom of the seas had been violated

    • innocent lives had been lost

    • commerce had been interrupted

    • shift in American sentiments

    • We were better prepared in 1917 to go to war

    • Zimmerman Telegram

His 121

  • Zimmerman Telegram

    • said that Germany would finance a Mexican attack on the U.S. to keep the U.S. from entering the war in Europe on the French/British side

    • when Germany won, it would give back to Mexico all the territory the U.S. had taken from them

    • this was the last straw for the U.S.

War affected all people

War Affected All People

  • An increase in government powers

  • An increase in the size of government

  • The use of propaganda to manipulate public opinion

  • Women took over men’s jobs when men went off to war

  • Military draft imposed

  • Factories produced war products

  • Food rationing in some countries

  • Civil liberties were removed or threatened

  • Unemployment ended

His 121

  • The influx of American troops in 1917 & in 1918 helped bring an end to the war

  • The Germans signed the Armistice on 11 November 1918, and the war was over

  • January, 1919 delegations from the 27 victorious allied nations gathered in Paris to write up the peace agreement of the war

His 121

  • The peace conference was dominated by 3 leaders:

    • France -- Georges Clemenceau – wanted revenge

    • Britain – David Lloyd George – more or less agreed with France

    • United States -- Woodrow Wilson – wanted a just peace; 14 Points

His 121

  • Italy played a less important role at the peace conference than it thought it should have

  • Germany wasn’t invited

  • The Treaty of Versailles, the peace agreement, was a compromise; Wilson sacrificed most of his 14 Points but got the League of Nations and self-determination of nations

  • Vengeful peace that would be a major cause for World War II

Treaty of versailles

Treaty of Versailles

  • Signed on the 28 June 1919 by the new Weimar government in Germany because it felt it had no choice; Germans were starving

  • Terms:

    • German army limited to 100,000 men and they would have long enlistments

    • Could not have submarines or an air force (Luftwaffe)

    • Austria could not merge with Germany

    • Alsace-Lorraine went back to France and sections of Poland to a new Polish state

His 121

  • New nations were formed from the former Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire

  • Germany had to pay for the entire cost of the war: reparations totaled 132 billion gold marks ($33 billion)

  • Rhineland was demilitarized

  • Germany was blamed entirely for the war and was left humiliated

  • All nations but the United States approved the treaty

Results of the war

Results of the War

  • A weakened League of Nations because U.S. would not join

  • A communist Russia

  • Shaky S.E. Asia and Europe; there were new unstable nations

  • U.S. isolationism

  • Britain refused to help France in future conflicts

His 121

  • France was alone with Germany on the continent

  • Germany was humiliated and resentful. They had trouble paying the reparations. They had a shaky economy with high inflation. This caused France to occupy the Ruhr Valley for 15 years to make sure Germany paid its debt

The russian revolution

The Russian Revolution

  • Russia finally joined the Industrial Revolution in the early 20th century and the working conditions were bad

  • Russian worker:

    • worked an 11 ½ hour day

    • lived in a shared hovel with 10 others

    • strikes were illegal

    • unions were illegal

    • had no contact with employer

His 121

  • Marxism first appeared and began to take hold in Russia in the late 1880s

    • Vladimir Ulyanov Lenin

      • became a Marxist leader in Russia in 1890s

      • believed in revolution as a way to bring about change

      • wanted to inspire peasants to revolt

        At a party conference in Brussels and in London in 1903, the majority of the delegates supported Lenin’s plan for a revolution, hence they were called Bolsheviks or majorityites. They were a majority only because those who disagreed chose not to attend.

His 121

  • Tsar Nicholas II sent Lenin into exile for his ideas

  • As a result, the revolutionary movement in Russia was led by the Mensheviks or the minority

  • Conditions in Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries:

    • very poor for the peasants who were 90% of the population

    • Russia lost their war with Japan 1904-1905

    • starving Russians approached the Tsar’s palace asking for bread and an 8-hour day; military fired on them

    • The result was Bloody Sunday or the First Russian Revolution, 1905

His 121

  • the country went on strike

  • Tsar had to promise them a Duma, a parliamentary body, to get things back under his control

  • Duma really had little or no power

  • nothing had changed

    Russia entered World War I hoping to unite its people; it did not.

    Russia had some early victories, followed by many losses

    Soldiers were poorly trained, poorly led, and poorly fed; many deserted or mutinied

His 121

  • Peasants at home were starving

  • There were angry marches in the capital

  • Nicholas II refused to share his power

  • His troops joined the marchers

  • Nicholas knew it was over for him

  • He abdicated his throne in late February 1917

  • The Duma took charge under Alexander Kerensky

  • He and the Duma couldn’t stop the chaos

His 121

  • Lenin believed it was time for his revolution and returned from exile in April 1917 with the help of Germany

  • Leon Trotsky and Lenin’s followers finally seized control in October 1917

  • Bolsheviks were then in power

  • Civil war immediately broke out -- the White Army (Tsar’s backers) vs. the Red Army (Lenin’s backers now called communists)

His 121

  • Red Army ultimately won out and the communists established a proletariat dictatorship

  • The first thing Lenin did was to fulfill his agreement with Germany; he pulled Russia out of World War I and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918

    • This gave away nearly ¼ of Russia’s territory and 1/3 of the population, minerals, and factories to Germany

His 121

  • Lenin could then concentrate on Russia

    • He established War Communism and then the NEP or New Economic Policy

    • In it he nationalized the banks and industry

    • He established universal education

    • He gave rights to women

    • He allowed some free enterprise

      Russia was then renamed the USSR in 1922

      By the time of Lenin’s death in 1924, the Communist Party was privileged, conformist, and bureaucratic.

His 121

  • Lenin was succeeded by Joseph Stalin, a brutal leader

  • Communism is no longer in power, as of 1991



  • World War I had been so brutal that many Europeans and Americans worked to find a way to true peace

  • They thought they had found it with the Kellog-Briand Pact of 1928

  • The League of Nations also worked on disarmament

The great depression

The Great Depression

  • In the 1920s the economy in many countries appeared to be strong

  • Food and goods were being produced at a high rate

  • In World War I the United States produced enough food and materiel to supply the U.S. and European allies

  • In the 1920s we were producing at the same rate as in World War I even though Europe was producing its own goods again

His 121

  • So we ended up with overproduction and underconsumption

  • This led to a glut, lay-offs, closed factories, and loans being called in

  • This shaky economy led to the crash of the stock market in October 1929 in New York

  • This crash affected other countries and colonies all over the world through loans, investments, and trade

His 121

  • 1932 was the worst year of the Depression

    • In Britain – 1 worker in 4 was unemployed

    • In Germany – 6 million workers or 40% were unemployed

    • Between 1929 and 1932 industrial production dropped 50% in the United States and 40% in Germany

His 121

  • Governments were at a loss for what to do

    • Some countries turned to Marxism & Communism

    • Some tried to have a more active democracy, like in the United States with Franklin D. Roosevelt elected in 1932

    • Some turned to dictatorship

    • Some had mixed economies

His 121

  • In the United States:

    • economist John Maynard Keynes recommended deficit spending to jump-start the economy

    • there were many government programs

      The only thing that truly got the United States out of the Depression was the start of World War II

His 121

  • In Germany:

    • the Weimar Republic was their new government

    • it had little support from the people

    • there was a shaky economy

    • in 1925 they got a new president who was a monarchist, a military man, and not in favor of a republic

    • There was some prosperity from 1924 to 1929; then came the crash

    • Depression, discontent, and fear allowed extremists like Adolf Hitler to rise to power by 1932

His 121


  • Disillusionment of the 1920s and 1930s led to an avant-garde movement in art

  • It was seen as a new way to view reality and deal with all the anxiety of the time

  • Dadaists:

    • wanted absolute freedom of expression

    • revolted against the past

    • showed the darker side of life

His 121

  • Surrealists wanted to shock with dreamlike and violent pictures; ex: Salvadore Dali

  • Abstract artists showed a new view of reality

  • Bauhaus school of architecture produced high-rise towers of steel and glass



  • James Joyce wrote streams of consciousness, inner monologues

  • Ernest Hemingway, Theodore Dreiser, and Sinclair Lewis told it like it was

His 121

  • Hollywood films and radio shows were very popular -- escapist entertainment during a rough time

  • World War I, the 1920s, and the 1930s truly shattered the old and sent people searching for the new

  • During this period we also see the United States rise in importance in world affairs

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