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CLASSIFICATION. Of Living Things. Classification:. The grouping of organisms based on similarities Allows us to study relationships between species Helps us assign names to organisms Taxonomy = a branch of Biology that groups and names organisms based in different characteristics.

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classification

CLASSIFICATION

Of Living Things

classification1
Classification:
  • The grouping of organisms based on similarities
  • Allows us to study relationships between species
  • Helps us assign names to organisms
  • Taxonomy = a branch of Biology that groups and names organisms based in different characteristics.
aristotle 384 322bc
Aristotle (384-322BC)
  • Classified organisms into two categories:
  • Plants
      • Herbs
      • Shrubs
      • Trees
  • Animals
      • Land
      • Water
      • Air
carolus linnaeus 1707 1778 born carl von linne but renamed himself with a scientific name
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)Born Carl von Linne, but renamed himself with a scientific name.
  • Devised a system for grouping and giving names to all organisms.
  • Used physical and structural characteristics to classify organisms.
  • Subdivided into smaller and more specific groups
  • Chose Latin as the language for assigning the names.
binomial nomenclature the linnaean system of naming
Binomial Nomenclature (The Linnaean system of naming)
  • Two name (“binomial“) naming system Example: Homo sapiens
  • First name is the genus (Ex. Homo)
      • Group of similar species
      • Capitalized
  • Second name is the species (Ex. sapiens)
      • Descriptive name
      • Lower case
slide6

Example

Acer rubrum(Red maple)

      • Acer= genus including

all maple trees

      • rubrum = red
  • Always italicize or underline scientific names

Acer rubrum or Acer rubrum

A.rubrum A.rubrum

taxonomic system
Taxonomic System

Levels of classification are referred to as

taxa.

Kingdom - largest, most general group

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species - smallest, most

specific group

slide8

More General

More Specific

d k p c o f g s
D K P C O F G S
  • It helps to come up with a sentence using the first letter of each taxon to help you remember them. For example,
  • Deprived King Philip Came Over For Great Spaghetti
  • Danish Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools.
some scientists use a 3 domain system domains are bigger than kingdoms
Some scientists use a 3 domain system. Domains are BIGGER than kingdoms.

These 2 kingdoms used to be combined into one called “Monera”

six kingdoms
Six Kingdoms
  • Archaebacteria – Prokaryotes; unicellular; most ancient
  • Eubacteria – Prokaryotes; unicellular; true bacteria (most modern bacteria)
  • Protista – Eukaryotes, unicellular and multicellular; autotrophs and heterotrophs; little specialization
  • Fungi – Eukaryotes; multicellular; heterotrophs, nonmotile
  • Plantae – Eukaryotes; multicellular; autotrophs
  • Animalia – Eukaryotes; multicellular; heterotrophs; motile

Heterotroph)

Autotroph)

Heterotroph)

slide12

Plantae

Animalia

Protista

Fungi

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

how are taxonomic relationships determined bases for modern classification
How are taxonomic relationships determined?Bases for modern classification
  • Structural similarities
  • Potential to mate
  • Geographical distribution
  • Chromosomes - # and structure
  • Biochemistry – DNA base sequence
  • Evolutionary relationship in the fossil record ---phylogeny
dichotomous key
Dichotomous Key
  • Chart of paired statements used to identify an organism
slide15

EXAMPLE:

1. A. Body kitelike in shape (if viewed from above).............................Go to statement 12

B.Body not kitelike in shape (if viewed from above)..........................Go to statement 2

2. A.Pelvic fin absent and nose sawlike ..................................Family Pristophoridae

B.Pelvic fin present ....................................................Go to statement 3

3. A.Six gill slits present ...............................................Family Hexanchidae

B.Five gill slits present .................................................Go to statement 4

4. A.Only one dorsal fin present .......................................Family Scyliorhinidae

B.Two dorsal fins present ..............................................Go to statement 5

5. A.Mouth at front of head rather than back along underside of head ......Family Rhinocodontidae

B.Mouth back along underside of head ....................................Go to statement 6

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