Classification
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CLASSIFICATION. Of Living Things. Classification:. The grouping of organisms based on similarities Allows us to study relationships between species Helps us assign names to organisms Taxonomy = a branch of Biology that groups and names organisms based in different characteristics.

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CLASSIFICATION

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Classification

CLASSIFICATION

Of Living Things


Classification1

Classification:

  • The grouping of organisms based on similarities

  • Allows us to study relationships between species

  • Helps us assign names to organisms

  • Taxonomy = a branch of Biology that groups and names organisms based in different characteristics.


Aristotle 384 322bc

Aristotle (384-322BC)

  • Classified organisms into two categories:

  • Plants

    • Herbs

    • Shrubs

    • Trees

  • Animals

    • Land

    • Water

    • Air


  • Carolus linnaeus 1707 1778 born carl von linne but renamed himself with a scientific name

    Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)Born Carl von Linne, but renamed himself with a scientific name.

    • Devised a system for grouping and giving names to all organisms.

    • Used physical and structural characteristics to classify organisms.

    • Subdivided into smaller and more specific groups

    • Chose Latin as the language for assigning the names.


    Binomial nomenclature the linnaean system of naming

    Binomial Nomenclature (The Linnaean system of naming)

    • Two name (“binomial“) naming system Example: Homo sapiens

    • First name is the genus (Ex. Homo)

      • Group of similar species

      • Capitalized

  • Second name is the species (Ex. sapiens)

    • Descriptive name

    • Lower case


  • Classification

    • Example

      Acer rubrum(Red maple)

      • Acer= genus including

        all maple trees

      • rubrum = red

  • Always italicize or underline scientific names

  • Acer rubrum or Acer rubrum

    A.rubrum A.rubrum


    Taxonomic system

    Taxonomic System

    Levels of classification are referred to as

    taxa.

    Kingdom - largest, most general group

    Phylum

    Class

    Order

    Family

    Genus

    Species - smallest, most

    specific group


    Classification

    More General

    More Specific


    D k p c o f g s

    D K P C O F G S

    • It helps to come up with a sentence using the first letter of each taxon to help you remember them. For example,

    • Deprived King Philip Came Over For Great Spaghetti

    • Danish Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools.


    Some scientists use a 3 domain system domains are bigger than kingdoms

    Some scientists use a 3 domain system. Domains are BIGGER than kingdoms.

    These 2 kingdoms used to be combined into one called “Monera”


    Six kingdoms

    Six Kingdoms

    • Archaebacteria – Prokaryotes; unicellular; most ancient

    • Eubacteria – Prokaryotes; unicellular; true bacteria (most modern bacteria)

    • Protista – Eukaryotes, unicellular and multicellular; autotrophs and heterotrophs; little specialization

    • Fungi – Eukaryotes; multicellular; heterotrophs, nonmotile

    • Plantae – Eukaryotes; multicellular; autotrophs

    • Animalia – Eukaryotes; multicellular; heterotrophs; motile

    Heterotroph)

    Autotroph)

    Heterotroph)


    Classification

    Plantae

    Animalia

    Protista

    Fungi

    Eubacteria

    Archaebacteria


    How are taxonomic relationships determined bases for modern classification

    How are taxonomic relationships determined?Bases for modern classification

    • Structural similarities

    • Potential to mate

    • Geographical distribution

    • Chromosomes - # and structure

    • Biochemistry – DNA base sequence

    • Evolutionary relationship in the fossil record ---phylogeny


    Dichotomous key

    Dichotomous Key

    • Chart of paired statements used to identify an organism


    Classification

    EXAMPLE:

    1. A. Body kitelike in shape (if viewed from above).............................Go to statement 12

    B.Body not kitelike in shape (if viewed from above)..........................Go to statement 2

    2. A.Pelvic fin absent and nose sawlike ..................................Family Pristophoridae

    B.Pelvic fin present ....................................................Go to statement 3

    3. A.Six gill slits present ...............................................Family Hexanchidae

    B.Five gill slits present .................................................Go to statement 4

    4. A.Only one dorsal fin present .......................................Family Scyliorhinidae

    B.Two dorsal fins present ..............................................Go to statement 5

    5. A.Mouth at front of head rather than back along underside of head ......Family Rhinocodontidae

    B.Mouth back along underside of head ....................................Go to statement 6


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