Phenotype and environment interaction
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Phenotype and Environment Interaction. Chad Bonstead Denise Fancher Julie Kondoff Matt Luensmann. What is a Genotype?. “internally coded, inheritable information” Coded language, “blueprint” Cannot be observed Codes for protein synthesis. Phenotype is…. “outward physical manifestation”

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Phenotype and Environment Interaction

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Phenotype and Environment Interaction

Chad Bonstead

Denise Fancher

Julie Kondoff

Matt Luensmann


What is a Genotype?

  • “internally coded, inheritable information”

  • Coded language, “blueprint”

  • Cannot be observed

  • Codes for protein synthesis


Phenotype is…

  • “outward physical manifestation”

  • Physical parts

  • Anything that is part of the observable structure, function, or behavior


Genotype Codes For Phenotype

  • The genotype holds the instructions that are interpreted to depict the phenotype.

  • Controls formation of macromolecules, and the regulation of metabolism and synthesis

  • Sum of atoms, molecules, macromolecules, cells, structure, metabolism, energy utilization, tissues, organs, reflexes, and behavior


Environmental Factors

  • Climate

    • Temperature

    • Sunlight

    • Precipitation

  • Air Pollution

  • Soil


Temperature

Plant growth is vitally dependent on temperature.


Precipitation

Plant growth is dependent on water.


Sunlight

  • Light Intensity

  • Quality of Light

  • Light Duration


Air Pollution

  • Symptoms

    • Stunted growth

    • Leaf drop

    • Abortion of flowers

    • Yellowed or mottled foliage

  • Factors

    • Type and concentration of pollutants

    • Distance from pollution source

    • Length of exposure

    • Weather

  • Examples

    • Ozone

    • Peroxyacetyl Nitrate

    • Ethylene

    • Sulfur Dioxide

    • Fluorides

    • Chlorine


Soil

  • Plants need 16 essential nutrients, 13 of which are found in the soil.

  • Soil texture

    • Sand

    • Silt

    • Clay

  • Soil pH


Soil pH and Plant Phenotype

  • What determines a soil’s pH?

  • Examples of the pH scale:

    < 4.5 = extremely acidic (lemon)

    4.5 - 5.0 = very strongly acidic (tomato)

    5.1 - 5.5 = strongly acidic (carrot)

    5.6 - 6.0 = moderately acidic (potato)

    6.1 - 6.5 = slightly acidic (milk)

    6.6 - 7.3 = neutral (saliva)

    7.4 - 7.8 = slightly alkaline (eggs)

    7.9 - 8.4 = moderately alkaline (sea water)

    8.5 - 9.0 = strongly alkaline (borax)

    9.1+ = very strongly alkaline (ammonia)


Effects of Soil pH on Plants

Solubility of minerals and nutrients, especially aluminum.

Most nutrients are more soluble in acidic soils.

Special case: Phosphorous

The presence and availability of these minerals determines several plant characteristics.


Hydrangeas

  • Aluminum in acidic soil causes Hydrangeas to bloom dark blue.


Neutral soils produce white blooms on Hydrangeas


  • Alkaline soil produces pink flowers on Hydrangea plants.


Soil Regions of North America


Why Adjust Soil pH?

  • A pH range from about 6 to 7 is ideal for most plants.

  • Some plants, like conifers and potatoes, are especially adapted to acidic soils.

  • Highly alkaline soils cut iron supply to plants, especially Oaks. (chlorosis)


How to adjust soil pH

  • Test soil pH using a sample test kit.


The Future

What’s Being Done and

Where Do We Go From Here?


Lignin Research

  • “Glue” providing structural support

  • Goal to produce specialize plants and trees for forestry and agriculture

  • Directly connected with the enzyme laccase

  • Research is in developmental stages

    • Risk vs. Reward

    • Possible Advancements


Global Warming

  • Consequence of human activity

  • Bleak and threatening outlook for plant and animal life

  • Possible remedies/solutions

    • Limit energy usage

    • Air Pollution

    • Waste and Recycling

    • Stay informed


Bioengineered Crops

  • Farm level adoption of GE crops

  • Future Applications

    • Benefits and Risks

    • Public Perception

    • Examples include herbicide-tolerant corn and soybeans, Bt cotton and corn


Bt CornBacillus thuringiensis

  • Advantages

    • Less Pesticide

    • Better Yields


Bt CornBacillus thuringiensis

  • Disadvantages

    • Resistance

    • Public View


Summary

  • New research techniques

  • Threat of Global Warming

  • Impact of biotechnology

  • Where do we come in?

    • Stay informed

    • Seek current, accurate information


Sources

  • Genotype and Phenotype Research

    http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/BioInfo/SD.Geno.HP.html

    http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/BioInfo/GP/GeneticTrait.html

    http://www.kursus.kv1.dk/shares/vetgen/_Popgen/genetics/1/1/tsld011.htm

  • Brickell, Christopher and Elvin McDonald. The American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Gardening, DK Publishing, Inc., 1993.

  • Novak, Joe. Garden Science: Lecture Supplement for HORT 301 Horticultural Techniques, Texas A&M University, 2003.

  • Preece, John E. and Paul E. Reed. The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.

  • USDA Hardiness Zone Maphttp://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/ushzmap.html

  • US Average Annual Precipitation Maphttp://www.eduplace.com/ss/maps/pdf/usclim.pdf

  • Effect of Light on Plant Growth

    http://www.biology-online.org/3/9_effect_light.htm

  • Blue Hydrangea Photohttp://www.conweb.com/hydrangea/

  • White Hydrangea Photohttp://greenwoodnursery.com/page.cfm/1281

  • Pink Hydrangea Photohttp://www.pottedliners.com/article.htm


More Sources

  • North America Soil pH Map

    http://atlas.sage.wisc.edu/maps/soilph/atl_soilph_nam.jpg

  • Soil pH effects page

    http://www.esf.edu/pubprog/brochure/soilph.htm

  • Lignin Research

    http://www.forestry.uga.edu/warnell/research/html/wildlife/lignin.html

  • Global Warming

    http://weathersavvy.com/GlobalWarming5.html

    http://nvnv.essortmen.com/globalwarmingp_rgby.htm

    http://www.usatoday.com/news/science/climate/2002-06-03-epa-report.htm

    http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/renewable_energy/page.cfm?pageID=91

  • Bioengineering and Bt Corn

    http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer810/aer810b.pdf

    http://entomology.ucdavis.edu/courses/ent110/docs/Weighing_BTcorn.pdf

    http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/magazine/summer00/assess.htm

    http://reason.com/bi/bi-gmf.shtml

  • Air Pollution

    http://www.aces.edu/department/ipm/poldmge.htm

    All websites current as of February 27, 2003.


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