Phenotype and environment interaction
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Phenotype and Environment Interaction. Chad Bonstead Denise Fancher Julie Kondoff Matt Luensmann. What is a Genotype?. “internally coded, inheritable information” Coded language, “blueprint” Cannot be observed Codes for protein synthesis. Phenotype is…. “outward physical manifestation”

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Phenotype and Environment Interaction

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Phenotype and environment interaction

Phenotype and Environment Interaction

Chad Bonstead

Denise Fancher

Julie Kondoff

Matt Luensmann


What is a genotype

What is a Genotype?

  • “internally coded, inheritable information”

  • Coded language, “blueprint”

  • Cannot be observed

  • Codes for protein synthesis


Phenotype is

Phenotype is…

  • “outward physical manifestation”

  • Physical parts

  • Anything that is part of the observable structure, function, or behavior


Genotype codes for phenotype

Genotype Codes For Phenotype

  • The genotype holds the instructions that are interpreted to depict the phenotype.

  • Controls formation of macromolecules, and the regulation of metabolism and synthesis

  • Sum of atoms, molecules, macromolecules, cells, structure, metabolism, energy utilization, tissues, organs, reflexes, and behavior


Environmental factors

Environmental Factors

  • Climate

    • Temperature

    • Sunlight

    • Precipitation

  • Air Pollution

  • Soil


Temperature

Temperature

Plant growth is vitally dependent on temperature.


Precipitation

Precipitation

Plant growth is dependent on water.


Sunlight

Sunlight

  • Light Intensity

  • Quality of Light

  • Light Duration


Air pollution

Air Pollution

  • Symptoms

    • Stunted growth

    • Leaf drop

    • Abortion of flowers

    • Yellowed or mottled foliage

  • Factors

    • Type and concentration of pollutants

    • Distance from pollution source

    • Length of exposure

    • Weather

  • Examples

    • Ozone

    • Peroxyacetyl Nitrate

    • Ethylene

    • Sulfur Dioxide

    • Fluorides

    • Chlorine


Phenotype and environment interaction

Soil

  • Plants need 16 essential nutrients, 13 of which are found in the soil.

  • Soil texture

    • Sand

    • Silt

    • Clay

  • Soil pH


Soil ph and plant phenotype

Soil pH and Plant Phenotype

  • What determines a soil’s pH?

  • Examples of the pH scale:

    < 4.5 = extremely acidic (lemon)

    4.5 - 5.0 = very strongly acidic (tomato)

    5.1 - 5.5 = strongly acidic (carrot)

    5.6 - 6.0 = moderately acidic (potato)

    6.1 - 6.5 = slightly acidic (milk)

    6.6 - 7.3 = neutral (saliva)

    7.4 - 7.8 = slightly alkaline (eggs)

    7.9 - 8.4 = moderately alkaline (sea water)

    8.5 - 9.0 = strongly alkaline (borax)

    9.1+ = very strongly alkaline (ammonia)


Effects of soil ph on plants

Effects of Soil pH on Plants

Solubility of minerals and nutrients, especially aluminum.

Most nutrients are more soluble in acidic soils.

Special case: Phosphorous

The presence and availability of these minerals determines several plant characteristics.


Hydrangeas

Hydrangeas

  • Aluminum in acidic soil causes Hydrangeas to bloom dark blue.


Neutral soils produce white blooms on hydrangeas

Neutral soils produce white blooms on Hydrangeas


Phenotype and environment interaction

  • Alkaline soil produces pink flowers on Hydrangea plants.


Soil regions of north america

Soil Regions of North America


Why adjust soil ph

Why Adjust Soil pH?

  • A pH range from about 6 to 7 is ideal for most plants.

  • Some plants, like conifers and potatoes, are especially adapted to acidic soils.

  • Highly alkaline soils cut iron supply to plants, especially Oaks. (chlorosis)


How to adjust soil ph

How to adjust soil pH

  • Test soil pH using a sample test kit.


The future

The Future

What’s Being Done and

Where Do We Go From Here?


Lignin research

Lignin Research

  • “Glue” providing structural support

  • Goal to produce specialize plants and trees for forestry and agriculture

  • Directly connected with the enzyme laccase

  • Research is in developmental stages

    • Risk vs. Reward

    • Possible Advancements


Global warming

Global Warming

  • Consequence of human activity

  • Bleak and threatening outlook for plant and animal life

  • Possible remedies/solutions

    • Limit energy usage

    • Air Pollution

    • Waste and Recycling

    • Stay informed


Bioengineered crops

Bioengineered Crops

  • Farm level adoption of GE crops

  • Future Applications

    • Benefits and Risks

    • Public Perception

    • Examples include herbicide-tolerant corn and soybeans, Bt cotton and corn


Bt corn bacillus thuringiensis

Bt CornBacillus thuringiensis

  • Advantages

    • Less Pesticide

    • Better Yields


Bt corn bacillus thuringiensis1

Bt CornBacillus thuringiensis

  • Disadvantages

    • Resistance

    • Public View


Summary

Summary

  • New research techniques

  • Threat of Global Warming

  • Impact of biotechnology

  • Where do we come in?

    • Stay informed

    • Seek current, accurate information


Sources

Sources

  • Genotype and Phenotype Research

    http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/BioInfo/SD.Geno.HP.html

    http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/BioInfo/GP/GeneticTrait.html

    http://www.kursus.kv1.dk/shares/vetgen/_Popgen/genetics/1/1/tsld011.htm

  • Brickell, Christopher and Elvin McDonald. The American Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Gardening, DK Publishing, Inc., 1993.

  • Novak, Joe. Garden Science: Lecture Supplement for HORT 301 Horticultural Techniques, Texas A&M University, 2003.

  • Preece, John E. and Paul E. Reed. The Biology of Horticulture: An Introductory Textbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.

  • USDA Hardiness Zone Maphttp://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/ushzmap.html

  • US Average Annual Precipitation Maphttp://www.eduplace.com/ss/maps/pdf/usclim.pdf

  • Effect of Light on Plant Growth

    http://www.biology-online.org/3/9_effect_light.htm

  • Blue Hydrangea Photohttp://www.conweb.com/hydrangea/

  • White Hydrangea Photohttp://greenwoodnursery.com/page.cfm/1281

  • Pink Hydrangea Photohttp://www.pottedliners.com/article.htm


More sources

More Sources

  • North America Soil pH Map

    http://atlas.sage.wisc.edu/maps/soilph/atl_soilph_nam.jpg

  • Soil pH effects page

    http://www.esf.edu/pubprog/brochure/soilph.htm

  • Lignin Research

    http://www.forestry.uga.edu/warnell/research/html/wildlife/lignin.html

  • Global Warming

    http://weathersavvy.com/GlobalWarming5.html

    http://nvnv.essortmen.com/globalwarmingp_rgby.htm

    http://www.usatoday.com/news/science/climate/2002-06-03-epa-report.htm

    http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/renewable_energy/page.cfm?pageID=91

  • Bioengineering and Bt Corn

    http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer810/aer810b.pdf

    http://entomology.ucdavis.edu/courses/ent110/docs/Weighing_BTcorn.pdf

    http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/magazine/summer00/assess.htm

    http://reason.com/bi/bi-gmf.shtml

  • Air Pollution

    http://www.aces.edu/department/ipm/poldmge.htm

    All websites current as of February 27, 2003.


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