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Carbon. Ch 4. Chemistry of Life. Organic Chemistry – study of carbon compds. C atoms are versatile building blocks bonding properties…complexity/diversity to living matter 4 stable covalent bonds p50-51 Fig 4.2, 4.4. Hydrocarbons. Combinations of C and H Non-polar Hydrophobic

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Carbon

Carbon

Ch 4


Chemistry of life
Chemistry of Life

Organic Chemistry – study of carbon compds

  • C atoms are versatile building blocks

    • bonding properties…complexity/diversity to living matter

    • 4 stable covalent bonds

    • p50-51 Fig 4.2, 4.4


Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons

  • Combinations of C and H

    • Non-polar

    • Hydrophobic

    • Store lg amts of energy

    • stable

    • very little attraction between molecules

Methane



Isomers
Isomers

  • Same molecular formula but different

  • structures (shapes)

  • -different chemical properties and

  • biological functions

6 carbons

6 carbons

6 carbons


Structural Isomers – differ in arrangements of

atoms

Geometric Isomers – variation in arrangement

about a double bond

Enantiomers – variation in spatial

Arrangement around an asymmetric

carbon…molecules that are mirror

images

Thalidomide

stereoisomers


Functional groups
Functional Groups

  • Parts of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions

    • give organic molecules distinctive properties

      hydroxylamino

      carbonylsulfhydryl

      carboxylphosphate

  • Affect reactivity

    • makes hydrocarbonshydrophilic

    • increase solubility in water


Why do functional groups matter
Why do Functional Groups Matter?

  • Basic structure of male & female hormones is identical

    • identical carbon skeleton

    • attachment of different functional groups

    • interact with different targets in the body

      • different effects


Hydroxyl
Hydroxyl

  • –OH = alcohols

    • names typically end in -ol

      • ethanol


Carbonyl
Carbonyl

  • C=O

    • if C=O at end molecule = aldehyde

    • if C=O in middle of molecule = ketone

    • Emma is awesome


Carboxyl
Carboxyl

  • –COOH

    • compounds with COOH = acids

      • fatty acids

      • amino acids


Amino
Amino

  • -NH2

    • compounds with NH2 = amines

      • amino acids

    • NH2 acts as base

      • ammonia picks up H+ from solution


Sulfhydryl
Sulfhydryl

  • –SH

    • compounds with SH = thiols

    • SH groups stabilize the structure of proteins


Phosphate
Phosphate

  • –PO4

    • connects to C through an O

    • lots of O = lots of negative charge

      • highly reactive

    • transfers energy between organic molecules

      • ATP, GTP, etc.


Functional groups1
Functional Groups

Excellent Flash Tutorial

http://telstar.ote.cmu.edu/biology/supplements/functional-group/


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