1820
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 40

1820 -1860: Increasing Sectionalism & the Road to the Civil War ( Unit III , Segment 1 of 3 ) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 203 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

1820 -1860: Increasing Sectionalism & the Road to the Civil War ( Unit III , Segment 1 of 3 ). The Sectional Crisis. Essential Question : Was the Civil War inevitable?. Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era.

Download Presentation

1820 -1860: Increasing Sectionalism & the Road to the Civil War ( Unit III , Segment 1 of 3 )

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


1820 1860 increasing sectionalism the road to the civil war unit iii segment 1 of 3

1820-1860: Increasing Sectionalism & the Road to the Civil War

(Unit III, Segment 1 of 3)


The sectional crisis

The Sectional Crisis


1820 1860 increasing sectionalism the road to the civil war unit iii segment 1 of 3

  • Essential Question:

    • Was the Civil War inevitable?


Sectionalism in the antebellum era

Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era

“King Cotton” had transformed the South into a rural region with slavery, little manufacturing, & few railroads

  • From 1800-1860, the North & South became vastly different regions


Sectionalism in the antebellum era1

Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era

The North had industrial factories, cities, paid immigrant workers, railroads, & larger population

  • From 1800-1860, the North & South became vastly different regions


Sectionalism in the antebellum era2

Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era

These regional differences increased sectionalism -- placing the interests of a region above the interests of the nation

  • 1820-1850: Sectionalism was mild & resolved by compromise


Sectionalism 1820 1850

Sectionalism: 1820-1850

The first major issue regarding slavery in the antebellum era focused on Missouri becoming a state in 1820:

  • Northerners & Southerners did not want to upset the equal balance of free & slave states in the Senate

  • Northerners did not want slavery to spread beyond the “Deep South”

  • Southerners did not think Congress had the power to stop slavery


In 1820 henry clay negotiated the missouri compromise the firebell in the night

Maine broke from Massachusetts & became a free state

In 1820, Henry Clay negotiated the Missouri Compromise“The firebell in the night!”

Missouri became a slave state

Slavery was outlawed in all western territories above the latitude of 36°30'


Sectionalism 1820 18501

Sectionalism: 1820-1850

In the 1830s, the issue of tariffs divided North & South

  • Southerners argued that tariffs benefited only the North & made manufactured goods too expensive

  • John C. Calhoun of SC attempted nullification & threatened secession

  • President Jackson fought this states’ rights argument


Sectionalism 1820 18502

Texas was not annexed for 9 years because statehood would unbalance the number of free & slave states

Sectionalism: 1820-1850

In the 1840s, westward expansion brought the issue of slavery up again:

The addition of the Mexican Cessionafter the Mexican-American War gave Southerners hope that slavery would spread to the Pacific Ocean


Sectionalism 1820 18503

Sectionalism: 1820-1850

  • In 1850, California asked to enter the Union as a free state:

    • Southerners did not want more free states & wanted slavery to be allowed in the southwest territories

    • Northerners wanted to keep slavery out of the SW & wanted other laws to protect runawayslaveswho made it to freedom in the North


The compromise of 1850 solved the sectional dispute between north south

The Compromise of 1850 solved the sectional dispute between North & South

The people of Utah & New Mexico could voteto allow or ban slavery (popular sovereignty)

The slave trade ended in Washington DC

A stronger Fugitive Slave Law was created that allowed Southerners to recapture slaves in the North

California entered as a free state


The compromise of 1850 henry clay daniel webster john calhoun

The Compromise of 1850: Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, & John Calhoun


Sectionalism 1820 18504

Sectionalism: 1820-1850

  • From 1820 to 1850, sectionalism in America increased due to

    • Differences in regional economies& the use of slavery

    • Westward expansion & the entry of new states to the Union

    • Growing abolitionismin the North

  • But, each time a dispute threatened the nation, a compromisewas reached


Sectionalism in the antebellum era3

Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era

These regional differences increased sectionalism -- placing the interests of a region above the interests of the nation

  • 1820-1850: Sectionalism was mild & resolved by compromise

  • 1850-1856: The growth of abolitionism & westward expansion intensified the question of the “morality” of slavery


Sectionalism 1850 1856

Sectionalism: 1850-1856

  • Abolitionists & many Northerners despised the Compromise of 1850:

    • The Fugitive Slave Law allowed runaway slaves (& sometimes “free blacks”) to be recaptured & enslaved

    • Northerners formed vigilante committees to protect runaways

    • Abolitionism grew in the North


1820 1860 increasing sectionalism the road to the civil war unit iii segment 1 of 3

The Underground Railroad was a network of safe housesto help slaves escape to freedom

Harriet Tubman made 19 trips South to lead 300 slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad


Sectionalism 1850 18561

Sectionalism: 1850-1856

  • In 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    • Depicted slavery as a moral evil

    • Became the best selling book of the 19th century

    • Inspired many in the North to join the abolitionist cause

"So you're the little lady who started this great war!"


Sectionalism 1850 18562

Sectionalism: 1850-1856

  • In 1854, Congress passed Stephen Douglas’Kansas-Nebraska Act

    • The law used popular sovereigntyto give the residents of the territories the right to vote to determine slavery

    • To do this, Congress repealed (ended) the Missouri Compromise lineat36º30’inthewesternterritories


1820 1860 increasing sectionalism the road to the civil war unit iii segment 1 of 3

The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854


Sectionalism 1850 18563

Sectionalism: 1850-1856

  • Northerners were outraged by the Kansas-Nebraska Act:

    • Congress allowed slavery to spread into an area of the U.S. where slavery was already outlawed

    • Northerners formed the RepublicanParty in 1854 & became committed to the “free soil” movement


Sectionalism 1850 18564

Sectionalism: 1850-1856

  • Popular sovereignty failed to settle the slavery question in the West:

    • When a vote was held in Kansas in 1855 to decide on slavery, thousands of Missouri residents illegally voted

    • This illegal vote gave Kansas slavery when its residents voted against it

    • In 1856, a war began between Kansas & Missouri (“Bleeding Kansas”)


1820 1860 increasing sectionalism the road to the civil war unit iii segment 1 of 3

The vote revealed a pro-slavery victory which led to a violent civil war in Kansas

“Bleeding Kansas”

Thousands of pro-slavery Missouri residents crossed the border & voted for slavery

Free-soilers from Kansas voted against slavery


Sectionalism 1850 18565

Sectionalism: 1850-1856

  • From 1850 to 1856, sectionalism in America increased due to:

    • The growth of abolitionism due to the Fugitive Slave Law, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, & the Kansas-Nebraska Act

    • The birth of regional (not national) political parties like the Republicans

  • Sectional tensions were becoming so bad that compromise was not an option


Sectionalism in the antebellum era4

Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era

These regional differences increased sectionalism -- placing the interests of a region above the interests of the nation

  • 1820-1850: Sectionalism was mild & resolved by compromise

  • 1850-1856: The growth of abolitionism & westward expansion intensified the question of the “morality” of slavery

  • 1856-1860: The slave issue became “irreconcilable” & led to the Civil War


Sectionalism 1856 1860

Sectionalism: 1856-1860

  • In 1857, a slave named Dred Scottsuedforhisfreedomaftertravelingwith his master from Missouri to Wisconsin

  • The Dred Scott case presented the Supreme Court with 2 major questions:

    • Does Congress have the power to decide on slavery in the territories?

    • Is the Missouri Compromise constitutional?


Sectionalism 1856 18601

Sectionalism: 1856-1860

  • In Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), the Supreme Court ruled:

    • Dred Scott had no right to suebecause African Americans were not citizens

    • Congress did not have the power to stop slavery in western territories so the Missouri Compromise was ruled unconstitutional

    • Northern abolitionists were furious


Sectionalism 1856 18602

Lincoln was unknown at the time, but during the campaign he argued that Congress must stop the spread of slavery (free soil argument)

Sectionalism: 1856-1860

  • In 1858, Democrat Stephen Douglas ran against Republican Abraham Lincoln for the Illinois Senate

Lincoln lost the Senate election, but his argument against slavery made him a popular national figure


1820 1860 increasing sectionalism the road to the civil war unit iii segment 1 of 3

“A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.”-- Abraham Lincoln, 1858


Sectionalism 1856 18603

Sectionalism: 1856-1860

  • In 1859, abolitionist John Brownled an unsuccessful raid on a federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, VA in an attempt to free slaves in a massive slave uprising

    • Brown was caught & executed

    • But he was seen as a martyr by many in the North

    • Southerners believed Northerners were using violence to end slavery


1820 1860 increasing sectionalism the road to the civil war unit iii segment 1 of 3

An Ill-fated Raid

Raid on Harpers Ferry

  • October 1859

  • John Brown / 20 men

    (5 African Americans) capture

    Federal Armory

    [Harpers Ferry, Virginia

    (now WV)]

    Goal: arm slaves / promote a slave rebellion

“One man and God can overturn the universe.”

-- John Brown


1820 1860 increasing sectionalism the road to the civil war unit iii segment 1 of 3

The Verdict

  • Guilty!

    “Now, if it is deemed

    necessary that I

    should forfeit my

    life for the

    furtherance of the

    ends of justice, and

    mingle my blood further

    with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments -- I submit; so let it be done.”-- John Brown


1820 1860 increasing sectionalism the road to the civil war unit iii segment 1 of 3

A Prediction?

John Brown left a haunting note to be read after his execution:

“I, John Brown, am now quite

certain that the crimes of this

guilty land will never be

purged away but with Blood.

I had as I now think vainly

flattered myself that without much bloodshed, it might be done.”

Result:

1. South grew less inclined to negotiate and talk peace

2. South began to form militias to protect itself from possible slave insurrections


Sectionalism 1856 18604

Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln who argued for “free soil”& a strong national gov’t

Sectionalism: 1856-1860

Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas who argued for popular sovereignty

  • The Election of 1860 proved to be the final straw for the South:

Southern Democrats nominated John Breckenridge who argued for states rights & the protection of slavery

Democrats in the North & South were split over the issue of slavery


Sectionalism 1856 18605

Lincoln won the election without a single Southern vote

Sectionalism: 1856 - 1860

Southerners assumed slavery would soon be abolished & began to discuss the possibility of seceding (breaking away) from the USA


Sectionalism 1856 18606

Sectionalism: 1856-1860

In December 1860, South Carolinabecame the first state to secede from the Union

In 1861, more Southern states seceded & the Civil Warbetween North & South began


Sectionalism 1856 18607

Sectionalism: 1856-1860

  • From 1856 to 1860, sectionalism in America increased due to:

    • Slavery became the most important political issue of the time

    • Growing Southern fears that the North would end slavery (John Brown’s raid, election of Lincoln)

  • No compromises could prevent a Civil War between the North & South


  • Login