Pilot-scale Testing and Predictive Model Development for Use in Minimizing NO
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DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895 Project Officer: Sean Plasynski PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Pilot-scale Testing and Predictive Model Development for Use in Minimizing NO X Emissions and Unburned Carbon when Cofiring Biomass with Coal. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895 Project Officer: Sean Plasynski.

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DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895 Project Officer: Sean Plasynski

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Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Pilot-scale Testing and Predictive Model Development for Use in Minimizing NOX Emissions and Unburned Carbon when Cofiring Biomass with Coal

DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895

Project Officer: Sean Plasynski

Larry Felix* Steve Niksa Kevin Davis Douglas Boylan

P. Vann Bush* Hong-Shig Shim


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Emissions Benefits of Biomass Cofiring

  • CO2 Reduction from Unburned Fossil Carbon

  • SO2 Reduction from Displaced Sulfur

  • Lower NOX Emissions (from Reducing Fuel Nitrogen, at a minimum)

  • Higher Fuel Volatility from Biomass

  • LOI Reduction (from Displaced Coal, at a minimum)


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Cofiring Research

  • In 2000, The U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Biomass Power Program has Funded 11 New Research Grants to Study Biomass Cofiring

  • This presentation presents selected results from one of these grants: “Development of a Validated Model for Use in Minimizing NOX Emissions and Maximizing Carbon Utilization When Cofiring Biomass with Coal”


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Specific Program Objectives

  • Develop a consistent, extensive biomass cofiring database

    • relationships between NOx and biomass cofiring parameters

    • effects on flame stability, carbon burnout, slagging and fouling, and particulate and gaseous emissions

  • Develop and validate a biomass cofiring model

    • forecast NOx and LOI for given fuel combination with specified cofiring configuration

    • optimize cofiring configuration to minimize NOx and unburned carbonfor specified fuels


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

PROJECT TEAM

Southern Research Institute

Southern Company

(Combustion Research Facility)

Niksa Energy Associates

(Cofiring Process Model)

Reaction Engineering International

(CFD Simulations)

Mesa Reduction, Inc

(Biomass Preparation)


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Project Flow Chart

CFD Model of Combustor

Biomass NOx-LOI Model

Combustion+Gas Chemistry Models

Controlled Pilot-Scale Cofiring Tests

Database

NOx-LOI

Other Combustion &

Emission Properties


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Combustion Research Facility

  • All testing conducted at the SRI/SCS 6.0 MMBtu/hr Combustion Research Facility (at 3.5 MMBtu/hr)

  • Continuous measurement and logging of ~ 200 pertinent process parameters

  • In-situ testing for mass emissions, particle size, char, pyrometry, ash resistivity, gases (O2 at furnace exit and at CEM location, CO, CO2, SO2, NOX, NH3, H2O, HCl).

  • On-site wet chemical flue gas and ash analyses, CHN (for carbon in ash), fuel heat value measurement

  • Instrumented CE-Raymond Model 352 Deep Bowl mill


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Pilot-Scale Test Facility

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Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Locations for Biomass Injection


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Major Variables within the Test Matrix


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Typical Coals


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Biomass Fuel Analyses


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Test Cases in Data Base


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

SELECTED TEST RESULTS

  • NOX Reductions from Cofiring Biomass

  • High, Medium, and Low Volatile / FC Ratios

  • Single (Mainly) and Dual-Register Burner

  • Sawdust and Switchgrass

  • 15% Overfire Air

  • 0% to 20% Biomass


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

What Do These Data Reveal?

  • There is No Guarantee that NOX Emissions will be Reduced when Coal is Cofired with Biomass

  • Complex Relationships Exist Among Furnace Operating Parameters, Burner Design, Cofiring Geometry, Biomass Choice, and Coal

  • NOX Reductions from Adding Biomass can be Much Greater than, Equal to, or Much Less than than the Amount of Fuel Nitrogen Replaced when Biomass is Cofired with Coal


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

General Conclusion

In Order to Understand the Nature of the Interactions that have been Observed, Fundamental Questions of Fuel Chemistry and Combustion Must be Addressed


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

MODEL DEVELOPMENT


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Model Requirements

  • Model results must agree with results in the experimental database - no adjustable parameters in the submodel for gas phase chemistry.

  • The model must incorporate a formalism that is generally applicable to any biomass cofiring configuration - from pilot-scale to full-scale.


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Model Assumptions

  • It is not currently possible to incorporate detailed chemical reaction mechanisms into conventional CFD simulations of pulverized coal and biomass flames - The reaction mechanism for chemistry in the gas phase contains 444 elementary reactions among 66 species, including all relevant radicals and N-species (Glarborg et al. 1998).

  • To predict NOX and LOI, incorporate detailed gas-phase chemistry through advanced CFD post-processing methodology developed by NEA.


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Model Implementation

  • Perform CFD simulation of the SRI/SCS pilot-scale furnace for as many test conditions as feasible using REI and REI’s Configurable Fireside Simulator to predict residence time distributions, temperature fields, and mixing intensities within the furnace.


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Furnace Exit

Furnace

Zones

Burnout Zone

OFA Zone

Mixing Layer

Core

Core

ERZ

ERZ


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Model Implementation

  • Define an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements for the pilot-scale furnace from the conventional CFD simulations.

  • The network is “equivalent” to the CFD flowfield in so far as it represents the bulk flow patterns in the flow. To the extent that the residence time distribution, thermal history, and entrainment rates are similar in the CFD flowfield and reactor network, the chemical kinetics evaluated in the network represent the chemistry in the CFD flowfield.


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

DEVOLATILIZATION ZONE

8 CSTRs, 65 ms

NO REDUCTION ZONE

8 CSTRs, 73 ms

Char

Primary Air

Volatiles

Char

DEVOLATILIZATION ZONE, 65 ms

NO REDUCTION ZONE, 128 ms

Primary Air

MIXING LAYER

19 CSTRs, 508 ms

Secondary Air

Tertiary Air (OFA)

OFA ZONE

6 CSTRs, 156 ms

LOI + Fly ash

BURNOUT ZONE

1460 ms

Exhaust Gases

Reactor Network


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Model Implementation

3.The reactor network is a computational environment that accommodates realistic chemical reaction mechanisms. Mechanisms with a few thousand elementary chemical reactions can now be simulated on ordinary personal computers, provided that the flow structures are restricted to the limiting cases of plug flow or perfectly stirred tanks.


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

MODEL VALIDATION

  • Pick Representative Cases

  • Predict NOX and LOI

  • Compare with Measurement


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Predicted vs. Measured NOX


Doe cooperative agreement no de fc26 00nt40895 project officer sean plasynski

Questions


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