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LUIS VON AHN. CAPTCHA, THE ESP GAME, AND OTHER STUFF. CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY. CAPTCHA. A PROGRAM THAT CAN TELL WHETHER ITS USER IS A HUMAN OR A COMPUTER. CAPTCHA. A PROGRAM THAT CAN GENERATE AND GRADE TESTS THAT:. A.MOST HUMANS CAN PASS B.CURRENT COMPUTER PROGRAMS CANNOT PASS.

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CAPTCHA, THE ESP GAME, AND OTHER STUFF

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LUIS VON AHN

CAPTCHA,

THE ESP GAME, AND OTHER STUFF

CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY


CAPTCHA

A PROGRAM THAT CAN TELL WHETHER ITS USER IS A HUMAN OR A COMPUTER


CAPTCHA

A PROGRAM THAT CAN GENERATE AND GRADE TESTS THAT:

A.MOST HUMANS CAN PASS

B.CURRENT COMPUTER PROGRAMS CANNOT PASS


PICKS RANDOM STRING OF LETTERS

RENDERS IT INTOA DISTORTED IMAGE

oamg

EXAMPLE


…AND GENERATES A TEST:

TYPE THE CHARACTERS THAT APPEAR IN THE IMAGE


P STANDS FOR PUBLIC

ALL CODE AND DATA USED BY A CAPTCHA SHOULD BE PUBLICLY AVAILABLE


COMPLETELY AUTOMATED PUBLIC TURING TEST TO TELL COMPUTERS AND HUMANS APART


UTILIZING THE POWER OF HUMAN CYCLES

CAPTCHA

APPLICATIONS

EXAMPLES

DIRTY HACKS

THE ESP GAME

OTHER STUFF


APPLICATIONS OF CAPTCHAS


QUICKVOTE

Which is the best Computer Science Grad School in the US?

Berkeley

MIT

CMU

Princeton

Cornell

Stanford

vote

(FROM WWW.SLASHDOT.ORG)


APPLICATIONS

FREE E-MAIL SERVICES

DATA COLLECTION

WORMS AND SPAM

PREVENTING DICTIONARY ATTACKS (PINKAS AND SANDER ‘02)


APPLICATIONS

FREE E-MAIL SERVICES

DATA COLLECTION

WORMS AND SPAM

PREVENTING DICTIONARY ATTACKS (PINKAS AND SANDER ‘02)


APPLICATIONS

FREE E-MAIL SERVICES

DATA COLLECTION

WORMS AND SPAM

PREVENTING DICTIONARY ATTACKS (PINKAS AND SANDER ‘02)


APPLICATIONS

FREE E-MAIL SERVICES

DATA COLLECTION

WORMS AND SPAM

PREVENTING DICTIONARY ATTACKS (PINKAS AND SANDER ‘02)


EXAMPLES OF CAPTCHAS


PIX

WHAT ARE THESE PICTURES OF?


PIX

WHAT ARE THESE PICTURES OF?

THE IMAGES NEED TO BE RANDOMLY DISTORTED


PIX

WHAT ARE THESE PICTURES OF?

THE IMAGES NEED TO BE RANDOMLY DISTORTED


PIX

WHAT ARE THESE PICTURES OF?

THE IMAGES NEED TO BE RANDOMLY DISTORTED


WHAT ARE THESE PICTURES OF?


BONGO

VISUAL ANALOGY

PROBLEMS

(BONGARD 1951)


SOUND-BASED CAPTCHA

HUMANS ARE BETTER THAN COMPUTERS AT UNDERSTANDING SPOKEN LANGUAGE


OPEN PROBLEM

CREATE A CAPTCHA BASED ON LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING


DIRTY HACKS


CAPTCHA SWEAT SHOPS

SPAM COMPANIES HIRE HUMANS TO SOLVE CAPTCHAS ALL DAY LONG

$2.50 PER HOUR FOR EACH HUMAN

720 CAPTCHAS PER HOUR PER HUMAN

1/3 CENT PER ACCOUNT


Free Nude Photos

> NEXT


Free Nude Photos

Type the word in the box if you want to see the next picture


UTILIZING THE POWER OF HUMAN CYCLES

CAPTCHA

APPLICATIONS

EXAMPLES

DIRTY HACKS

THE ESP GAME

OTHER STUFF


MARTHA STEWART

FLOWERS

SUPER EVIL

LABELING IMAGES WITH WORDS

STILL AN OPEN PROBLEM


USES FILENAMES AND HTML TEXT

IMAGE SEARCH ON THE WEB


REASON:

MOST IMAGES DON’T HAVE PROPER CAPTIONS

ACCESSIBILITY

LESS THAN 10% OF THE WEB IS ACCESSIBLE TO THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED


DESIDERATA

A METHOD THAT CAN LABEL ALL IMAGES ON THE WEB

FAST AND CHEAP


USING HUMANS

CLEVERLY

THE ESP GAME COULD LABEL ALL IMAGES ON THE WEB IN 30 DAYS!

THE ESP GAME


THE ESP GAME

TWO-PLAYER ONLINE GAME

PARTNERS DON’T KNOW EACH OTHER AND CAN’T COMMUNICATE

OBJECT OF THE GAME:

TYPE THE SAME WORD

THE ONLY THING IN COMMON IS AN IMAGE


GUESSING: CAR

GUESSING: BOY

GUESSING: CAR

GUESSING: HAT

GUESSING: KID

SUCCESS!

YOU AGREE ON CAR

SUCCESS!

YOU AGREE ON CAR

THE ESP GAME

PLAYER 1

PLAYER 2


© 2004 Carnegie Mellon University, all rights reserved. Patent Pending.


THE ESP GAME IS FUN

4.1 MILLION LABELS WITH 23,000 PLAYERS

THERE ARE MANY PEOPLE THAT PLAY OVER 20 HOURS A WEEK


LABELING THE ENTIRE WEB

5000 PEOPLE PLAYING SIMULTANEOUSLY CAN LABEL ALL IMAGES ON GOOGLE IN 30 DAYS!

INDIVIDUAL GAMES IN YAHOO! AND MSN AVERAGE OVER 5,000 PLAYERS AT A TIME


A FEW MILLION LABELS

CAN IMPROVE IMAGE SEARCH

CAN BE USED TO IMPROVE COMPUTER VISION


WE EMULATE PARTNER BY PLAYING PRE- RECORDED MOVES

SINGLE PLAYER GAME

A SINGLE PERSON CAN PLAY WITH PRE-RECORDED ACTIONS AS THEIR PARTNER

(0:12) CAR

(0:15) HAT

(0:21) KID

(0:08) BOY

(0:23) CAR

NOTICE THAT THIS DOESN’T STOP THE LABELING PROCESS!

WHEN 2 PEOPLE PLAY, WE RECORD EVERY ACTION WITH TIMING INFORMATION


WHAT ABOUT CHEATING?

IF A PAIR PLAYS TOO FAST, WE DON’T RECORD THE WORDS THEY AGREE ON


WE GIVE PLAYERS TEST IMAGES FOR WHICH WE KNOW ALL THE COMMON LABELS:

WE ONLY STORE A PLAYER’S GUESSES IF THEY SUCCESSFULLY LABEL THE TEST IMAGES

WHAT ABOUT CHEATING?


SEARCH RESULTS


BEACHCHAIRSSEAPEOPLEMAN

WOMANPLANTOCEAN

TALKINGWATERPORCH

SAMPLE LABELS


SADDAM

MR. WILSON

MAN

FACE

MOUSTACHE

COMING SOON:

MEET YOUR SOUL MATE THROUGH THE GAME!

BUSH

PRESIDENT

DUMB

YUCK

YUCK

SAMPLE LABELS


WHY DO PEOPLE LIKE THE ESP GAME?


THE ESP GAME GIVES ITS PLAYERS A WEIRD AND BEAUTIFUL SENSE OF ANONYMOUS INTIMACY. ON THE ONE HAND, YOU HAVE NO IDEA WHO YOUR PARTNER IS. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE TWO OF YOU ARE BRINGING YOUR MINDS TOGETHER IN A WAY THAT LOVERS WOULD ENVY.

THE ESP GAME GIVES ITS PLAYERS A WEIRD AND BEAUTIFUL SENSE OF ANONYMOUS INTIMACY.

THE ESP GAME GIVES ITS PLAYERS A WEIRD AND BEAUTIFUL SENSE OF ANONYMOUS INTIMACY. ON THE ONE HAND, YOU HAVE NO IDEA WHO YOUR PARTNER IS.


IT’S FAST-PACED

HELPS ME LEARN ENGLISH

STRANGELY ADDICTIVE

IT’S SO MUCH FUN TRYNG TO GUESS WHAT OTHERS THINK. YOU HAVE TO STEP OUTSIDE OF YOURSELF TO MATCH


IN OTHER CROWNING ACHEIVEMENTS,

I HAVEN'T PLAYED IN AT LEAST A WEEK (PROBABLY LONGER), AND I AM STILL ON THE TOP TEN LIST OF PLAYERS ON THE ESP GAME. NUMBER EIGHT IF I REMEMBER CORRECTLY.

GOD, MY LIFE IS SAD.

BLOGS


BUT BY FAR THE MOST INTRIGUING ASPECT OF THE GAME IS HOW OFTEN YOUR RANDOM, UNKNOWN PARTNER IS A COMPLETE IDIOT.

THERE ARE MANY FASCINATING THINGS ABOUT THE ESP GAME:

HOW IT USES A GAME STRUCTURE TO BUILD AN INDEX OF IMAGES ON THE WEB

WHAT WORDS BECOME TABOO FROM FREQUENT USE

HOW INTERESTING SOME OF THE IMAGES PULLED RANDOMLY FROM THE WEB ARE


OTHER GAMES


LOCATING OBJECTS IN IMAGES

THE ESP GAME TELLS US IF AN IMAGE CONTAINS A SPECIFIC OBJECT, BUT DOESN’T SAY WHERE IN THE IMAGE THE OBJECT IS

SUCH INFORMATION WOULD BE EXTREMELY USEFUL FOR COMPUTER VISION RESEARCH


PAINTBALL GAME

PLAYERS SHOOT AT OBJECTS ON THE IMAGE

SHOOT THE:

CAR

WE GIVE POINTS AND CHECK ACCURACY BY GIVING PLAYERS IMAGES FOR WHICH WE ALREADY KNOW WHERE THE OBJECT IS


PAINTBALL GAME

X% OF IMAGES

(100-X)% OF IMAGES

DON’T

KNOW


BALL


REVEALING IMAGES

GUESSER

REVEALER

CAR

BRUSH

CAR

BRUSH

CAR

GUESS

PARTNER’S

GUESS


MEDIUM-TERM GOAL

USE THE ESP GAME, ALONG WITH THE PAINT-BALL GAME AND THE REVEALING GAME TO CREATE THE MOST ACCURATE COMPUTER VISION ALGORITHMS TO RECOGNIZE A WIDE VARIETY OF OBJECT CATEGORIES


WE GIVE PEOPLE

40% OF IMAGES WITH PROPERTY X

40% OF IMAGES WITHOUT PROPERTY X

20% OF UNKNOWN IMAGES

X OR NOT

CAN BE USED TO CLASSIFY ALL IMAGES ON THE WEB AS HAVING PROPERTY X OR NOT

$$$

IF PEOPLE LIKE IMAGES WITH PROPERTY X, WE CAN OFFER AN INCENTIVE: THE MORE ACCURATE A PLAYER IS, THE MORE IMAGES WITH PROPERTY X THEY GET


THE POWER OF HUMAN CYCLES

CAPTCHA

OPEN

PROBLEM

GAME


OUR WORK ON CAPTCHA HAS APPEARED IN OVER 100 NEWSPAPERS AROUND THE WORLD


THE ESP GAME HAS APPEARED IN OVER 50 NEWSPAPERS AROUND THE WORLD


Name That Image

Computers excel at sifting information, but they have trouble distinguishing a picture of a tree from one of a turtle.

So researchers at Carnegie Mellon University knew they needed human volunteers to successfully label millions of unmarked images on the Web. Luis von Ahn, a graduate student in computer science, had the inspired idea of turning the laborious process into a two-player contest called the ESP Game (espgame.org).

Each time you play, you are randomly paired with another anonymous player. You can't communicate with your partner, although you both see the same image. The goal is to guess the descriptive word your partner is typing for the image. Once you both type the same word, you see a new image.

Since October the game has attracted 15,000 registered players, and they have created more than 1.5 million labels (a label is a single descriptive word; most photos require multiple labels). The site draws from a database of 200,000 Web images; another 200,000 are to be added soon. Mr. von Ahn said that properly labeling Web images would allow for more efficient image searching, improve the screen readers used by the visually impaired and help users block inappropriate images.


WWW.CAPTCHA.NET


WWW.ESPGAME.ORG


SLIDE DESIGN

LUIS VON AHN

CAPTCHA CREW

LUIS VON AHN

MANUEL BLUM

NICHOLAS HOPPER

JOHN LANGFORD

THE ESP GAME CREW

LUIS VON AHN

LAURA DABBISH

SPEAKER’S ENTERTAINMENT PROVIDED BY

HOMESTARRUNNER.COM

WARDROBE PROVIDED BY

THE GAP

HAIRSTYLES

ARNAUD SOME-FRENCH-LAST-NAME

THIS WORK HAS BEEN

AND WILL BE PARTIALLY SUPPORTED BY

MANUEL BLUM

THE ALADDIN CENTER

MICROSOFT RESEARCH

MY MOM

YOUR TAX DOLLARS

MORE SPECIAL THANKS

UDI MANBER

MONI NAOR

LENORE RAMM

CHUCK ROSENBERG

RONI ROSENFELD

DAVID STORK

LATANYA SWEENEY

SHINGO UCHIHASHI

MANUELA VELOSO

SPECIAL THANKS TO

ADITYA AKELLA

JOSH BENALOH

LENORE BLUM

MANUEL BLUM

ANDREW BORTZ

SHUCHI CHAWLA

LAURA DABBISH

BILL GATES

BRIGHTEN GODFREY

NICK HOPPER

SCOTT HUDSON

TAKEO KANADE

STEVEN KATZ

JOHN LANGFORD

JITENDRA MALIK


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