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Series Circuits

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Series Circuits

Principles of Physics

- A circuit with one resistor
- When one electron leaves the voltage supply another one enters
- How fast this exchange occurs is based on resistance
- One electron pushes another and so on

- More than one resistor in a single path
- Each electron must go through every resistor
- Total resistance increases with every resistor added in series

- Current flow depends on all resistors
- Current through each resistor is the same
IT = I1 = I2 = …

R1

R2

- A voltage exists across every device (voltage supply, resistors, light bulbs, etc.)
- As an electron goes through a resistor or device it loses energy because it does work to get through
- How much energy lost per Coulomb (voltage) depends on the resistance

- Voltage gained by electrons when leaving the voltage supply equals the total voltage lost before returning
- Since voltage is lost through all resistors
VT = V1 + V2 + …

R1

R2

To determine the current leaving the voltage supply the total resistance must be used

RT = R1 + R2 +…

R1

R2

Determine the total current in the circuit

V = IR

12 V = I(24 Ω)

I = 0.5 A

10 Ω

12 V

RT = R1 + R2

= 10 Ω + 14 Ω

= 24 Ω

14 Ω

Determine the voltage in the 10 Ω resistor

V = IR

V= 0.5 A(10 Ω)

V = 5 V

10 Ω

12 V

14 Ω

Determine the voltage in the 14 Ω resistor

V = IR

V= 0.5 A(14 Ω)

V = 7 V

10 Ω

12 V

or

VT = V1 + V2

12 V = 5 V + V2

V2 = 7 V

14 Ω

A

B

5 Ω

5 Ω

5 Ω

12 V

12 V

5 Ω

5 Ω

By adding another resistor in series

Increase total resistance

Decreases current

Voltage across each resistor decreases

- Adding a resistor in series increases the total resistance
- When one resistor is disconnected the circuit is open – current does not flow
- Everyone has to go through all doors to get out
- The smallest door slows the movement the most