Series circuits
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Series Circuits. Principles of Physics. Simple Circuit. A circuit with one resistor When one electron leaves the voltage supply another one enters How fast this exchange occurs is based on resistance One electron pushes another and so on. Series Circuit.

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Series Circuits

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Series circuits

Series Circuits

Principles of Physics


Simple circuit

Simple Circuit

  • A circuit with one resistor

  • When one electron leaves the voltage supply another one enters

  • How fast this exchange occurs is based on resistance

  • One electron pushes another and so on


Series circuit

Series Circuit

  • More than one resistor in a single path

  • Each electron must go through every resistor

  • Total resistance increases with every resistor added in series


Resistor in series

Resistor in Series


Current in a series circuit

Current in a Series Circuit

  • Current flow depends on all resistors

  • Current through each resistor is the same

    IT = I1 = I2 = …

R1

R2


Remember voltage is lost in resistors

Remember, Voltage is Lost in Resistors

  • A voltage exists across every device (voltage supply, resistors, light bulbs, etc.)

  • As an electron goes through a resistor or device it loses energy because it does work to get through

  • How much energy lost per Coulomb (voltage) depends on the resistance


Voltage in a series circuit

Voltage in a Series Circuit

  • Voltage gained by electrons when leaving the voltage supply equals the total voltage lost before returning

  • Since voltage is lost through all resistors

    VT = V1 + V2 + …

R1

R2


Total resistance in a series circuit

Total Resistance in a Series Circuit

To determine the current leaving the voltage supply the total resistance must be used

RT = R1 + R2 +…

R1

R2


Analyzing a series circuit

Analyzing a Series Circuit

Determine the total current in the circuit

V = IR

12 V = I(24 Ω)

I = 0.5 A

10 Ω

12 V

RT = R1 + R2

= 10 Ω + 14 Ω

= 24 Ω

14 Ω


Analyzing a series circuit1

Analyzing a Series Circuit

Determine the voltage in the 10 Ω resistor

V = IR

V= 0.5 A(10 Ω)

V = 5 V

10 Ω

12 V

14 Ω


Analyzing a series circuit2

Analyzing a Series Circuit

Determine the voltage in the 14 Ω resistor

V = IR

V= 0.5 A(14 Ω)

V = 7 V

10 Ω

12 V

or

VT = V1 + V2

12 V = 5 V + V2

V2 = 7 V

14 Ω


Comparing circuits with series resistors

Comparing Circuits with Series Resistors

A

B

5 Ω

5 Ω

5 Ω

12 V

12 V

5 Ω

5 Ω

By adding another resistor in series

Increase total resistance

Decreases current

Voltage across each resistor decreases


Resistors in series

Resistors in Series

  • Adding a resistor in series increases the total resistance

  • When one resistor is disconnected the circuit is open – current does not flow

  • Everyone has to go through all doors to get out

    • The smallest door slows the movement the most


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