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Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects 2010 Awards Program PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Project Name:. Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning Ecological Sanitation in Northern Uganda. Project Purpose:. The purpose of this study is to find out the attitudes of Northern Ugandan communities toward the potential use of ecological sanitation systems.

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Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects 2010 Awards Program

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Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Project Name:

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning Ecological Sanitation in Northern Uganda

Project Purpose:

The purpose of this study is to find out the attitudes of Northern Ugandan communities toward the potential use of ecological sanitation systems.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Role of Landscape Architect:

This is a graduate level thesis as partial fulfillment for the degree of Masters in Landscape Architecture. The research was completed by the graduate student under the guidance of his thesis committee.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Special Factors:

This is a very unique research project that was done in Northern Uganda to guide in the planning and design of ecological sanitation systems to improve the sustainability of such systems. This was carried out in an effort to understand how to reduce morbidity rates, and improve economic and environmental sustainability as a whole.

The researcher used a modified version of the Visual Preference Survey™ (VPS) often used in urban planning. The VPS was proven to be useful in third-world development projects.

The researcher requested and received funding to travel and perform the study. It proved challenging in the sense that the researcher had only one opportunity to collect data.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Significance:

  • This is a worthy project because of the following:

  • It is important to understand the culture before making design decisions.

  • Ecological sanitation is a regenerative system with a low ecological footprint.

  • Ecological sanitation is more adaptable to the environment than a waste water treatment system.

  • There are many opportunities for landscape architects to be involved in developing countries.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Introduction:

The global concern:

Sanitation and open defecation practices are a major concern in developing countries. Many people die in these countries from unsafe sanitation systems that lead to contaminated food and water supplies (Lamichhane, 2007).

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

World Health Organization and United Nations are working to resolve the global issue:

The World Health Organization (WHO) states that morbidity rates could be reduced through improvements in sanitation. The WHO and United Nations see the problem as so critical that the United Nations has placed the sanitation issue as a millennium development goal (United Nations, 2000; McConville & Mihelcic, 2007)

The United Nations is not on track to meet the millennium development goal (United Nations, 2009).

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Ecological sanitation is a sanitation system that by hygienic recovery, takes human excreta and turns it into something of use and value for its nutrients as well as minimizes the risk of environmental pollution and threat to human health (Duncker, Matsebe, & Moilwa 2007; Heinz-Peter & Jurga, 2007).

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Key findings from other literature:

People all over the world have been discussing the limitations of natural resources (Landergraber & Muellegger, 2005).

Over ninety percent of sewage in developing countries goes untreated (Landergraber & Muellegger, 2005).

In rural areas with low population density a decentralized system where ecological sanitation can be effectively employed is needed for the system to be sustainable (Landergraber & Muellegger, 2005).

Septic systems or pits can be a problem as they fill up, and most owners do not have the financial means to empty them. In a rural setting, it may be possible to dig additional pits, but the cost involved still is not practical (Austin & Van Vurren, 2001; Austin, Duncker, & Matsebe, 2005).

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

This is the main part of the literature review that points out the need for surveys to be conducted.

Duncker suggests that local authorities should conduct surveys to conceptualize the needs, priorities, practices as well as socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the community before the beginning steps of implementation occur. Duncker goes on to say that such sanitation projects as the dry toilets should not only meet the needs of the community and existing practices but should suit the cultural norms and needs of the community members (Duncker, 2006).

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

  • The survey was administered at Restoration Gateway, a non-profit organization by the Nile river in Northern Uganda.

  • The survey was administered to communities within a 10 mile area of Restoration Gateway.

  • Restoration Gateway is marked by a yellow star on this map of Uganda. Source: www.computers4africa.org./impact/ugandamap.htm

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

The below VPS comparison group is an example of the 21 pairs that the communities rated. The rating system was 1 (strongly dislike) to 7 (really like). In this image the participants would rate placement of the latrine.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Below are the design categories that the communities rated. The previous slide showed placement (near or far) out of four different pairs. This chart shows all the categories.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

The Questionnaire was given as a part of the VPS so that the researcher could look at demographic information and to better understand needs, current practices and preferences.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

The survey results were separated into two groups, the Restoration Gateway employees and the non-employees (other community members). This was done because the employees are familiar with flush toilets and many of the non-employees are only familiar with pit toilets. The researcher wanted to see how this difference affected their responses.

Total response rate n=148

Restoration Gateway Employees 61% (n=90)

Non-employees 38% (n=58)

Men 53% (n=79)

Women 47% (n=69)

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

  • Result highlights from the questionnaire:

  • 98% of the respondents stated they have latrine access at home.

  • Satisfaction of current latrine mean=5.95 dev=2.52. Bedmont and Ayuda community had a below neutral mean score and Restoration Gateway had a high m=9.25 dev=.957.

  • Knowledge of Ecological sanitation, 53% (n=78) yes and 47% (n=70) no

  • Would you use Ecological sanitation, 59% (n=85) yes and 41% (n=60) no.

  • 97% said privacy is an issue when using the restroom.

  • 100% said they need a new latrine.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

These are the findings on each of the categories from the Visual Preference Survey™ and respondent comments. The VPS results were compared by looking at the average score for each image. A t-test was performed on each pair for significance by using the p-value.

Privacy:

Images of the toilets with no enclosure received a lower score than the enclosed latrine. The comments explained that open defecation is shameful, unhygienic, and that latrines should have a door to ensure privacy.

Placement:

The closer a latrine was placed to a home or community the lower the score. Comments indicated that latrines should not be too close nor too far away from the dwellings. Also, it is unhygienic to have a latrine next to the home because of odor, flies, and disease.

Type (sitting or squatting):

The sitting toilet received a higher score than the squatting toilet.

In one of the images where the sitting toilet appeared to be unhygienic the squatting toilet had a higher score. In conversation with the participants some of them indicated that sitting on a toilet is not clean.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Type (portable or fixed ): The fixed toilet images received a higher score than the portable bucket toilet. The bucket toilet was provided as an “in home” most affordable option for the community. Comments showed that the bucket toilet is not a good option for children. Nonetheless, one comment stated wanting to learn how to use the bucket toilet.

Type (high or low): The high latrine scored slightly higher than the low latrine. Comments stated that the slab should be high enough to prevent flooding. Those familiar with ecological sanitation gave a higher score for the raised latrines. This could be because the raised latrine is an indication of a ecological toilet.

Gender: The gender labeled latrines received a higher score than the non-labeled latrines. Comments stated that latrines should be gender labeled. Men and women had no significant difference between their ratings.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

  • Respondent Comments:

    • Overall 62% (n=92) of the respondents left comments after completing the survey.

    • 29 of the comments stated that they are interested in learning about Ecological Sanitation and like the idea of using human waste for agriculture. In addition, some stated that they would prefer using Ecological Sanitation over other systems.

    • 2 comments that were stated showed to have some concern for Ecological Sanitation.

  • Final Conclusion:

  • Northern Ugandans are willing and capable of adapting ecological sanitation systems through further educational training.

  • Although the VPS was critical in respect to understanding the design preferences of sanitation systems, the comments from the respondents were the key to drawing this conclusion.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


Mississippi chapter american society of landscape architects 2010 awards program

At first glance one may not understand how the design of ecological sanitation plays into the field of landscape architecture. However, they are closely connected in many ways. This study took a close look into the perception of a people group and their culture. This is one of the first steps in a design process and it is often left out. This process is an important part of all design and planning fields. It is crucial for a designer to truly understand what a culture needs and how to meet those needs from a design standpoint. Many projects are unsuccessful when culture is not considered in the design process.

Although this project was specific to a people group in Uganda, the same methodology with a different topic could be applied to assist in the design of spaces in Mississippi where there is a deep culture and heritage. The structure of this methodology is not limited to sanitation systems only, but could be a model method used by landscape architects in community design for finding preferences for house types and common areas, parks and recreational spaces, campus planning, etc. By using a visual preference survey, language and cultural barriers are minimized.

Many projects are strengthened when people from different backgrounds can participate in the planning process. The use of Preference Surveys provides opportunity to receive opinions from the public creating a sense of pride, ownership, and public acceptance.

Mississippi Chapter – American Society of Landscape Architects2010 Awards Program

Cultural Predilection on Design in Planning

Research


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