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Book 1. New Concept English Comprehensive Course. 大学英语新理念 综合教程 第一册. New Concept English Comprehensive Course 新理念大学英语综合教程. Unit Five Health. Book 1. Smart Health Choices. Learning Focus. Get a general idea about the subhealth.

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New concept english comprehensive course

Book 1

New Concept English Comprehensive Course

大学英语新理念

综合教程

第一册


Unit five health

New Concept English Comprehensive Course

新理念大学英语综合教程

Unit Five Health

Book 1

Smart Health Choices


Learning focus

Learning Focus

Get a general idea about the subhealth.

Enjoy an interesting short passage about whitening teeth.

Use the grammar of future tenses correctly.

Know some writing skills about I. O. U and Receipt.


Section ii reading

Section II Reading

Text A

Text B


Text a

Text A

Background

Detailed Study of Text A

Words and Expressions

Exercises


New concept english comprehensive course

Background

Text A

1. Subhealth

Subhealth(亚健康) is a state between good health and illnesses. It does not involve organ dysfunction(机能障碍) but implies gradual bodily deterioration(恶化) (which is often referred to as “the third state” or “gray state”). Subhealth is closely linked to your physical well-being, psychological state, as well as imbalances in social relationships and environment-related health problems. People with subhealth often suffer from fatigue, neck/back aches, stress overload, excessive anxiety, sleeping disorders and addictive habits. The most severe cases may even exhibit suicidal tendencies(自杀倾向) or anti-social(反社会) behavior. Subhealth induces negative emotions, reduces vigor, weakens your immune system(免疫系统), and jeopardizes(危害) your personal health. Employees suffering from subhealth often cost enterprises and institutions quality of work, operational efficiency and positive work attitude. This may in turn cause damage to customer relationship and corporate image, and as importantly, the latent medical cost may be considerable.


New concept english comprehensive course

Background

Text A

Subhealth victims are abundant in developed and highly competitive societies, and the number of affected people is rapidly increasing. A recent survey by the World Health Organization (WHO) indicated that 75% of the world's urban population are suffering from subhealth. SUBHEALTH and AIDS are ranked as the two most threatening health risks of the 21st century, according to WHO. Findings by China Health Care Science Technology Society, which covered 16 Chinese provinces/cities with a population of over 1 million, showed similar trends. In the study, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong reported significantly higher number of subhealth residents, representing 75.31%, 73.49% and 73.41% respectively of the cities' population. In May 2005, the Third International Conference on Health Preservation also found only 15% of the mainland Chinese measuring up to the WHO health standards, and about 85% of the national population suffered from subhealth!


New concept english comprehensive course

Background

Text A

Incidents of subhealth are most prominent among the intellectuals and business executives, affecting more than 70% of the group. Subhealth syndrome(征兆) also appears in over half of the white-collar professionals engaged in highly competitive fields (such as information technology, banking and finance, accountancy, retailing, advertisement, and media), as well as in data processing, sales and R&D jobs. In addition, over half of the middle age group suffers from subhealth. Women aged between 30 and 60 are also a vulnerable(易受攻击的), especially when they reach menopausa(绝经期). Such emotional distress and physical changes may cause subhealth. These statistics point to white collar workers being possibly the most vulnerable group subjected to subhealth threat. Hence, proactive measures should be taken to prevent subhealth.


New concept english comprehensive course

Background

Text A

2. Nine Major Risks of Subhealth

Our self-administered SubHealth Quotient (SHQ) instrument measures the extent to which the respondents are affected by the following nine categories of risks:

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

CFS is a long-term fatigue status which is caused by many sources, including ambiguous pathological causes. The main symptoms may include physical exhaustion (which cannot be alleviated simply by resting), Cachexia, limb aches, and deteriorating memory.


New concept english comprehensive course

Background

Text A

Dietetic Disorder

Undesirable dietetic habits, such as dietetic immoderation and intake of unhealthy food items, may cause an inadequate supply of the necessary daily nutritional intake. These can lead to the aging of your body cells, malfunctioning of your immune system, gastrointestinal problems and other repercussions.

Muscular Dysfunction

Excessive repetitive use of the muscles may cause wrist injury to the user. In addition, sitting for long hours or improper postures can lead to spinal problems, which can cause other health-related issues such as back/neck aches, stiffness of waist and leg, numbness in the limbs, and maybe even paralysis.


New concept english comprehensive course

Background

Text A

Sleeping Disturbance

This refers to abnormality in sleeping patterns in both quality and quantity, such as hypersomnia (excessive sleepiness) or sleeping insufficiency. Sleeping disturbance is medically classified into three types: sleep abnormity; sleep-related problems (including sleepwalking, sleeping lightly, nightmare or snoring), and insomnia. Insomnia and sleeping insufficiency are the most common symptoms of sleeping disturbance. If untreated, it can severely endanger your physical and psychological health.

Emotional Disturbance

Emotional disturbance is caused by a myriad of factors. It poses a significant risk to one's psychological well-being. A person suffering from emotional disturbance is often irritable, stressful, pessimistic, anxious, tense and experiences uncontrollable emotions.


New concept english comprehensive course

Background

Text A

Social Relationship Imbalance

Social support reduces the negative emotions resulting from stress, diminishes the adverse effect of pressure on health and provides avenues to alleviate stress. Research has indicated that social support can mitigate the negative emotional feeling and other psychological impact on individuals. Social relationship imbalance can make it difficult for a person to bear the pressure alone, causing emotional or social relationship problems which can subsequently lead to subhealth.

Stress Overload

We often experience tension and depression, which can adversely affect our physical, psychological, and social well-beings. Prolonged periods of stress can weaken our immune system, which may result in constipation or diarrhea, insomnia, lassitude, headache, poor memory, short attention span, shortness of breath, obesity or rapid loss of body weight, muscular tension, depression, anxiety and increased sensitivity to pain.


New concept english comprehensive course

Background

Text A

Karoshi(过劳死)

Karoshi is a severe subhealth status caused by several factors like extended period of overtime work, excessively high work intensity and psychological overload. The accumulation of these inducements may lead to other more severe latent diseases which may even cause death, if no proper treatment is given timely.

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)

Environmental factors (like indoor pollution, poor air circulation, improper indoor temperature, humidity, lighting or sound) may cause health damage to occupants of the building. These may in turn cause a series of uncomfortable symptoms such as sensitive nose, pharynx or throat, headache, fatigue, hypersomnia and asthma.


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Text A

亚健康状态

1.最近感到疲倦吗?医生是不是说用最先进的仪器也检查不出什么毛病来?

2.那你就该考虑一下了:你可能处于亚健康状态。亚健康,也称为身体的第三状态,或者灰色状态,是健康和疾病之间的临界。有人认为,亚健康是人们在日常生活中的压力所致。

Text A


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Text A

3.世界卫生组织的一项调查表明:有超过45% 的亚健康人群是从事管理工作的人员或者是面临考试的学生。4.亚健康的症状有:精神不振、情绪低落、反应迟钝、失眠、心烦、记忆力下降、有时伴有呼吸短促、出汗以及腰腿痛。

Text A


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Text A

5.医学专家们给出了一些能够减轻疼痛,缓解症状的建议。他们认为有效预防亚健康或者尽快恢复健康的关键是养成良好的生活习惯,注意劳逸结合,定期锻炼,积极参加户外活动。对于饮食,他们建议人们减少盐和糖的摄入。多吃蔬菜、水果以及鱼类,因为这些食物富含人体所需的多种营养物质和维生素。营养学家指出,每顿饭不要吃的过饱,因为这会不利于你的消化系统。

Text A


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Text A

6.此外,工作不是生活的全部。生活和工作是一个整体。你不仅仅是为工作而活。在生活中,你扮演着多种角色,也有精神的、情感的、心灵的以及物质的需求。化点时间想想你的个人角色吧,要为人父母,做人朋友,以及为人儿女。尊重自己的需要,为自己创设一片宁静,陶冶情操。你会发现,致力于掌控生活中更多的平衡能够帮助你提高工作效率。你会更轻松,更易于集中注意力,从而高效能地完成工作。

Text A


Text b

Text B

Detailed Study of Text B

Words and Expressions

Exercises


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Text B

如何保持牙齿的洁白

1.回顾元月份,我们介绍了一种用草莓保持牙齿洁白的奇怪方法,至少这种方法听起来有点奇怪,事实说明,它还确实有效。

2.如果你不喜欢草莓,或者你只是想找一种切实可行的洁白牙齿的方法,那么, 你可以去看牙医,或者自己上网查资料。实际上,当我考虑这个问题时,我觉得我的牙医从没提过我收集到的那些小贴士。

Text B


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Text B

3.下面是一些你可能从未听说过的奇怪方法。

4.使用吸管。如果你一定要喝茶、可乐或者其他类似的饮料,一定要用吸管。使用吸管能够使液体避过你的牙齿与牙床,防止色素在牙齿上沉淀。

Text B


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Text B

5.游泳也要承担风险。经常去泳池游泳会使你的牙齿产生色斑----这可不是开玩笑!用来清洗泳池的化学物质会导致一种为大家所熟知的游泳者结石,这种结石会在牙齿表面留下棕色的斑点。这种沉积就是牙垢,这时,你就得去找牙医,用专业方法进行清理。

Text B


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Text B

6.别再啃指甲了。嘎吱、嘎吱、嘎吱。你啃指甲吗?有啃指甲习惯的人伤害的并不仅仅是他们的指甲,也会损害他们的牙齿。如果你破坏了牙齿的珐琅质,你的牙本质就会暴露出来,会形成凹痕,牙齿的中间会比较脆弱。这样的话,问题就会随之而产生。牙齿表面的凹痕比珐琅质脆弱的多,如果再加上一些不良习惯,比如啃指甲,用牙齿开酒瓶,它就会日渐磨损。通常,牙齿的中间部份会比四周坏的更快,脆弱的珐琅质很容易就会碎裂,从而使你的牙齿看起来不整齐,不好看。

Text B


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Sample 1

借据(I. O. U)

借 据

今从图书馆借到《新编英汉辞典》一部。

李明

2008年7月2日


New concept english comprehensive course

Sample 2

收条(Receipt)

June 8,2008

Received from Mr. Handel the following things: One computerOne tape-recorder

Bruce


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

Sample 2

收条(Receipt)

收条

2008年6月8日

  兹收到汉德尔先生下述物件:   计算机一台   录音机一台

布鲁斯


New concept english comprehensive course

Writing Tips

1.借据和收条是指我们借用或接受款项或物品时打的条据。书写时,时间须写在正文右上角,年、月、日的排列就按英文的习惯,一般为日、月、年或月、日、年。立据人写于右下角。

2.正文是借据和收条的主要部分。一定要写明向谁借的,收到谁的,收到什么东西、数量多少等。文字要求简明扼要。


New concept english comprehensive course

3.没有偿还日期的借条,开头需加上“I.O.U.”(I.O.U.也可写成IOU,是I owe you(我欠你)的缩写形式)或“Borrowed from…”,写明何人、何物和所借数量。定期偿还的借据(Promissory Note),要将偿还日期写清楚,末尾即款项后往往加上“for value received”字样。

4.收条的写法与借据大致相同。不必写抬头,可直接写明收到的具体内容,开头常以“Received from…”或“Received of…”引导。


New concept english comprehensive course

参考答案

IOU

Borrowed from Mrs. Smith five thousand U.S. dollars (U.S. $5000) only, within two years from this date with annual interest at three percent (3%).

Li Bin

Receipt

May 15, 2007

Received from Li Ping the cash six hundred yuan only. (RMB¥600).

Peter John


New concept english comprehensive course

Section IV Language Skill Development

一般将来时 (Simple Future Tense)

1. 定义:一般将来时表示将来某一时刻的动作或状态,或将来某一段时间内经常发生的动作或状态。

2. 构成:一般将来时由助动词shall(第一人称),will(第二、三人称)+动词原形构成。

3. 用法:

(1) 表示将来的动作或状态。

一般将来时常与一些表示将来的时间状语连用,如: tomorrow(明天), next

week(下周), from now on(从现在开始);in the future(将来)等。 e.g.

My brother will leave for the United States next week. 我哥哥下周动身去美国。

Shall I call you a taxi ? 我为你叫辆出租车好吗?

Will you go to school with me tomorrow? 明天你和我一起去学校吗?

(2) 表示将来经常发生的动作。e.g.

Some birds will fly away to the south when winter comes.

冬天来的时候一些鸟要飞到南方去。

He'll come to work here from now on. 从现在起他将在这里工作。

(3) 一般将来时的其他形式

一般将来时表示将来某一时刻的动作或状态,其表达形式除了“shall(第一人称),

will(第二、三人称)+ 动词原形构成”外,还有以下几种形式。


New concept english comprehensive course

1)“to be going to+动词原形”表示即将发生的或最近打算进行的事。e.g. It is going to rain. 要下雨了。 We are going to have a meeting today. 今天我们开会。

2)go,come,start,move,sail,leave,arrive,stay等可用进行时态表示按计划即将发生的动作。e.g. I‘m leaving for Beijing. 我要去北京。

3)“be to+动词原形”表示按计划要发生的事或征求对方意见。e.g. Are we to go on with this work? 我们继续干吗? The boy is to go to school tomorrow. 这个男孩明天要去上学

4)“be about to+动词原形”表示即将发生的动作,意为:很快,马上。后面一般不跟时间状语连用。e.g.We are about to leave.我们马上就走。

5)某些词,如come, go, leave, arrive, start, get, stay 等的一般现在时也可表示将来。e.g. The meeting starts at five o'clock. 会议五点开始。 He gets off at the next stop. 他下一站下车。


New concept english comprehensive course

将来进行时 (Future Continuous Tense)

1. 定义:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。

2. 构成:将来进行时的形式是shall(will)+be+现在分词。

3. 用法:

(1) 将来进行时表示未来某一时刻正在进行的动作。e.g.

 What will you be doing this time tomorrow? 你明天这时候将做什么?

This time tomorrow I shall be flying to Guangzhou.明天这个时候我将在飞往广州的途中。

(2) 将来进行时表示未来某一段时间正在进行的动作。e.g.

I hope you won't be feeling too tired. 我希望你不要太累。

We‘ll be watching television all evening. 我们整个晚上都将看电视。

(3) 将来进行时可使语气比一般将来时委婉客气。e.g.

When will you be seeing John? 你什么时候会见约翰?

Will you be reading anything else?你还要看点儿什么吗?

(4) 将来进行时可表示原因、结果和可能。e.g.

If you don't study hard, you will not be passing the exam.  

你如果不用功读书,你就通不过考试 。(表结果)

Please come tomorrow afternoon, Tomorrow morning I'll be having a meeting.

请你明天下午来吧。我明天上午有个会。   (表原因)

You will be making a mistake.

你会出错的。     (表推测)


New concept english comprehensive course

将来完成时(Future Perfect Tense)

1. 定义:将来完成时指预见或计划将来某时刻之前已完成的动作,或已存在的状态。

2. 构成:will/shall  have  +过去分词 或will/shall  have  been + 表语

3. 用法:

(1) 表示状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。e.g.

They will have been married for 20 years by next week.

到下周为止他们已经结婚20年了。

(2) 表示动作完成:表示在将来某一个时间或另一个将来的动作之前已经完成的动作或获得的经验。e.g.

You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.

明天早上这个时候你就到上海了.

You will have finished this grammar book by the end of this semester.

到本学期末你们就已学完这本语法了.

(3) 在以if,unless,when,before,after,as soon as等连词引起的状语从句中,通常都以现在完成时代替将来完成时。e.g.

I intend to go to college after I have completed my high school course.

读完高中课程,我打算上大学。

You will like the book after you have read it.

看完这本书,你会喜欢它的。


New concept english comprehensive course

将来完成进行时 (Future Perfect Continuous Tense)

1. 定义:将来完成进行时表示动作从某一时间开始一直延续到将来某一时间。是否延续下去,要视上下文而定。这个时态常和表示将来某一时间的状语连用。

2. 构成:shall/will + have been + 现在分词.

3. 用法:

I shall have been working here in this factory for twenty years by

the end of the year.

到今年年底,我在这个工厂工作就有20年了。

You'll have been wondering all this time how my invention works.

我想你这些时候一直想知道我的发明怎样会行得通的。

By September 8, she will have been living here for ten years.

到九月八号,她住在这里就将满10年了。


New concept english comprehensive course

Section VI Funny Time

The Endless Debt

A little boy asked his father: Daddy, how much does it 

cost to get married?   The father replied: I don 't know son. I 'm still paying!


New concept english comprehensive course

参考译文

无尽的债

一个小男孩问他的爸爸,结婚要花多少钱?

爸爸说:我不知道,因为我仍然在付帐。


New concept english comprehensive course

Thank You!


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