Chapter 11 information system development and programming languages
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Chapter 11 Information System Development and Programming Languages. Next. Chapter 11 Objectives. Discuss the importance of project management, feasibility assessment, documentation, data and information gathering techniques, and information systems security during system development.

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Chapter 11 Information System Development and Programming Languages

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Chapter 11 information system development and programming languages

Chapter 11 Information System Development and Programming Languages


Chapter 11 objectives

Next

Chapter 11 Objectives

Discuss the importance of project management, feasibility assessment, documentation, data and information gathering techniques, and information systems security during system development

List other programming languages and other program development tools

Describe various ways to develop Web pages

Discuss the purpose of each phase in the system development cycle

List the six steps in the program development cycle

Differentiate between low-level languages and procedural languages

Explain the basic control structures used in designing solutions to programming problems

Identify the benefits of object-oriented programming languages and program development tools


The system development life cycle

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is an information system (IS)?

Hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce quality information

System—Set of components that interact to achieve common goal

Businesses use many types of systems

p. 406


The system development life cycle1

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What are the phases of the system development cycle?

Phase 2. Analysis

  • Conduct preliminary investigation

  • Perform detailed analysis activities:

    • Study current system

    • Determine user requirements

    • Recommend solution

Phase 1. Planning

Phase 3. Design

  • Review project requests

  • Prioritize project requests

  • Allocate resources

  • Form project development team

  • Acquire hardware and software, if necessary

  • Develop details of system

Phase 4. Implementation

Phase 5. Operating, Support, and Security

  • Develop programs, if necessary

  • Install and test new system

  • Train users

  • Convert to new system

  • Perform maintenance activities

  • Monitor system performance

  • Assess system security

p. 406 Fig. 11-1


The system development life cycle2

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

Who participates in the system development life cycle?

p. 407 Fig. 11-2


The system development life cycle3

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is a systems analyst?

Responsible for designing and developing information system

Users’ primary contact person

p. 407


The system development life cycle4

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is theproject team?

Formed to work on project from beginning to end

Consists of users, systems analyst, and other

IT professionals

Project leader—one member of the team who manages and controls project budget and schedule

p. 408


The system development life cycle5

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is project management?

  • Process of planning, scheduling, and controlling activities during system development cycle

  • Project leader identifies elements for project

Goal, objectives, and expectations, collectively called scope

Required activities

Time estimates for each activity

Cost estimates for each activity

Order of activities

Activities that can take place at same time

p. 408


The system development life cycle6

Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Linkfrom left navigation,

then click PERT Chartsbelow Chapter 11

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is a Gantt chart?

  • Popular tool used to plan and schedule time relationships among project activities

p. 409 Fig. 11-3


The system development life cycle7

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

Operational feasibility

What is feasibility?

Measure of how suitable system development will be to the company

Four feasibility tests:

Schedule feasibility

Economic feasibility (also called cost/benefit feasibility)

Technical feasibility

p. 409


The system development life cycle8

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is documentation?

Collection and summarization of data and information

Includes reports, diagrams, programs, and other deliverables

p. 409


The system development life cycle9

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What are six data and information gathering techniques?

  • Review documentation

  • Observe

  • Survey

  • Interview

  • Joint-application design (JAD) session

  • Research

p. 410 Fig. 11-4


The system development life cycle10

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What are some reasons to create or modify an information system?

To correct problem in existing system

To improve existing system

Outside group may mandate change

Competition can lead to change

p. 410


The system development life cycle11

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is a request for system services?

  • Formal request for new or modified information system

    • Also called project request

p. 411 Fig. 11-5


The system development life cycle12

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is the planning phase?

Begins when steering committee receives project request

Steering committee—decision-making body for the company

Function of committee:

Review and approve project requests

Prioritize project requests

Allocate resources

Form project development team for each approved project

p. 413


The system development life cycle13

Conduct preliminary investigation, also called feasibility study

Perform detailed analysis

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is the analysis phase?

p. 413


The system development life cycle14

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is the preliminary investigation?

  • Determine exact nature of problem or improvement and whether it is worth pursuing

  • Findings are presented in feasibility report

p. 413 - 414 Fig. 11-6


The system development life cycle15

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is detailed analysis?

1. Study how current system works

2. Determine user’s wants, needs, and requirements

3. Recommend solution

Sometimes called logical design

p. 415


The system development life cycle16

Assesses feasibility of each alternative solution

Recommends the most feasible solution for the project

Presented to steering committee, which decides how to develop system

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is the system proposal?

p. 415


The system development life cycle17

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

Horizontal market software—meets needs of many companies

What are possible solutions?

Buypackaged software—prewritten software available for purchase

Vertical market software—designed for particular industry

Write own custom software—software developed at user’s request

Outsource—have outside source develop software

p. 415


The system development life cycle18

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is the design phase?

Acquire hardware and software

Develop all details of new or modified information system

p. 416


The system development life cycle19

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is needed to acquire new hardware and software?

  • Identify all hardware and software requirements of new or modified system

Identify technicalspecifications

Solicit vendor proposals

Test and evaluate vendor proposals

Make a decision

p. 416


The system development life cycle20

Vendor quotes price(s) for listed product(s)

Identifies product(s) you want

Vendor selects product(s) that meet(s) your requirements and then quotes price(s)

Less formal method that uses standard form to request information about product or service

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What are three basic documents used to summarize technical specifications?

Request for quotation (RFQ)

Request for proposal (RFP)

Request for information (RFI)

p. 416


The system development life cycle21

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

How do systems analysts test software products?

  • References from vendor

  • Talk to current users of product

  • Product demonstrations

  • Trial version of software

  • Benchmark testmeasures performance

p. 417


The system development life cycle22

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is a detailed design?

Detailed design specifications for components in proposed solution

Includes several activities

Database design

Input and output design

Program design

p. 418


The system development life cycle23

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is a mockup?

  • Sample of input or output that contains actual data

p. 418 Fig. 11-8


The system development life cycle24

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is a layout chart?

  • Input or output that contains programming-like notations for data items

p. 419 Fig. 11-9


The system development life cycle25

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is a prototype?

Working model of proposed system

Beginning a prototype too early may lead to problems

p. 419


The system development life cycle26

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is computer-aided software engineering (CASE)?

  • Software tools designed to support activities of system development cycle

p. 419 Fig. 11-10


The system development life cycle27

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is the implementation phase?

  • Purpose is to construct, or build, new or modified system and then deliver it to users

Convert to new system

Train users

Install and test new system

Develop programs

p. 420 - 421


The system development life cycle28

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What are the four types of tests performed by system developers?

Unit Test

Systems test

Verifies each individual program works by itself

Verifies all programs in application work together

Integration Test

Acceptance Test

Verifies application works with other applications

Verifies the new system works with actual data

p. 420


The system development life cycle29

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What istraining?

  • Showing users exactly how they will use new hardware and software in system

p. 420 - 421 Fig. 11-11


The system development life cycle30

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What are conversion strategies?

  • Used to change from old system to new system

p. 421


The system development life cycle31

Perform maintenance activities

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

Monitor system performance

What is the operation,support, and security phase?

  • Provides ongoing assistance after system is implemented

Assess system security

p. 422


The system development life cycle32

Next

The System Development Life Cycle

What is a computer security plan?

  • Summarizes in writing all of the safeguards that are in place to protect a company’s information assets

Identify allinformation

assets of an

organization

Identify allsecurity risksthat may cause an informationasset loss

For each risk,identify thesafeguards that exist to detect, prevent, and recover from a loss

p. 422


Design phase

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Design Phase

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Programming languages

Next

Programming Languages

What is a computer program?

  • Set of instructions that directs computer to perform tasks

  • Programming language—used to communicate instructions

p. 423 Fig. 11-12


Programming languages1

Next

Programming Languages

What are low-level languages and high-level languages?

Low-levellanguage

High-level language

Machine-dependentruns only on one type of computer

Oftenmachine-independentcan run on many different types of computers and operating systems

Machine and assembly languages are low-level

p. 424


Programming languages2

Next

Programming Languages

What is machine language?

  • Only language computer directly recognizes

  • Uses a series of binary digits (1s and 0s) with a combination of numbers and letters that represent binary digits

p. 424 Fig. 11-13


Programming languages3

Next

Programming Languages

What is assembly language?

  • Instructions made up of symbolic instruction codes, meaningful abbreviations and codes

  • Source program contains code to be converted to machine language

p. 424 - 425 Fig. 11-14


Programming languages4

Next

Programming Languages

What is a procedural language?

Programmer writes instructions that tell computer what to accomplish and how to do it

Uses series of English-like words to write instructions

Often called third-generation language (3GL)

p. 425


Programming languages5

Next

Programming Languages

What is a compiler?

  • Program that converts entire source program into machine language before executing it

p. 425 Fig. 11-15


Programming languages6

Next

Programming Languages

What is an interpreter?

  • Program that translates and executes one program code statement at a time

  • Does not produce object program

p. 426 Fig. 11-16


Programming languages7

Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Linkfrom left navigation,

then click COBOLbelow Chapter 11

Next

Programming Languages

What is COBOL?

  • Designed for business applications

  • English-like statements make code easy to read, write, and maintain

  • COmmon Business-Oriented Language

p. 426 Fig. 11-17


Programming languages8

Next

Programming Languages

What is C?

  • Powerful language originally designed to write system software

  • Runs most often on Unix operating systems

p. 427 Fig. 11-18


Programming languages9

Next

Programming Languages

What is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language?

Used to implement object-oriented design

Major benefit is ability to reuse and modify existing objects

Event-driven—checks for and responds to set of events

Java, C++, and C#, are complete object-oriented languages

Object is item that contains data and procedures that act on data

Event is action to which program responds

p. 427


Programming languages10

Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Linkfrom left navigation,

then click Java Platforms below Chapter 11

Next

Programming Languages

What is Java?

  • Developed by Sun Microsystems

  • Uses just-in-time (JIT) compiler to convert source code into machine code

p. 427 - 428 Fig. 11-19


Programming languages11

Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Linkfrom left navigation,

then click C++ and C#below Chapter 11

Next

Programming Languages

What is C++?

  • Includes all elements of C, plus additional features for working with object-oriented concepts

  • Used to develop database and Web applications

What is C#?

  • Object-oriented programming language based on C++

  • Accepted as a standard for Web applications and XML-based Web services

p. 428


Programming languages12

Next

Programming Languages

What is Visual Studio?

  • .NET is set of technologies that allows program to run on Internet

  • Comprised of Visual Basic, Visual C++, and Visual C#

Step 1. The developer designs the user interface.

Step 2.The developer assigns properties to each object on the form.

Step 3.The developerwrites code to define the action of each command button.

Step 4.The developer tests the program.

p. 428 - 429 Fig. 11-20


Programming languages13

Next

Programming Languages

What is Delphi?

  • Powerful visual programming tool

  • Ideal for large-scale enterprise and Web applications

What is PowerBuilder?

  • Another powerful visual programming tool

  • Best suited for Web-based and large-scale object-oriented applications

p. 429


Programming languages14

Visual programming environment (VPE) allows developers to drag and drop objects to build programs

Next

Programming Languages

What is a visual programming language?

Provides visual or graphical interface for creating source code

Examples include Alice, Mindscript and Prograph

p. 429


Programming languages15

Next

Programming Languages

What is RPG(Report Program Generator)?

  • Used for generating reports, accessing data, and updating data in databases

p. 430 Fig. 11-21


Programming languages16

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Programming Languages

What is a fourth-generation language(4GL)?

  • Nonprocedural language that allows access to data in database

  • Popular 4GL is SQL, query language that allows users to manage data in relational DBMS

p. 430 Fig. 11-22


Programming languages17

Next

Programming Languages

What are other available programming languages?

Ada

ALGOL

APL

BASIC

Forth

FORTRAN

HyperTalk

Modula-2

LISP

Logo

Pascal

PILOT

PL/1

Prolog

Smalltalk

p. 431


Programming languages18

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Programming Languages

What is an application generator?

  • Program that creates source code or machine code from specification

  • Consists of report writer, form, and menu generator

  • Form provides areas for entering data

p. 431 - 432 Fig. 11-24


Programming languages19

Next

Programming Languages

What is HTML(Hypertext Markup Language)?

  • Used to create Web pages

p. 433 Fig. 11-25


Programming languages20

Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Linkfrom left navigation,

then click PHPbelow Chapter 11

Next

Programming Languages

What is a scripting language?

  • Typically easy to learn and use

  • JavaScript

  • Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language)

  • PHP (PHP: Hypertext Processor)

  • Rexx (Restructured eXtended eXecutor)

  • Tcl (Tool Command Language)

  • VBScript(Visual Basic, Scripting Edition)

p. 434 - 435 Fig. 11-26


Programming languages21

Next

Programming Languages

What is dynamic HTML (DHTML)?

  • Allows developers to include more graphical interest and interactivity in Web page

p. 435 Fig. 11-27


Programming languages22

Next

Programming Languages

What are XHTML, XML, and WML?

Includes features of HTML and XML

XHTML (Extensible HTML)enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsers

XML (Extensible Markup Language)allows developers to create customized tags

Server sends entire record to client, enabling client to do much of processing without going back to server

RSS 2.0 and ATOM

WML (Wireless Markup Language)allows developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsers

Many Internet-enabled smart phones and PDAs use WML as their markup language

p. 436


Programming languages23

Next

Programming Languages

What is Ajax?

  • Stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML

  • Method of creating interactive Web applications designed to provide immediate response

  • Combines JavaScript, HTML or XHTML, and XML

  • Google Maps and Flickr use Ajax

p. 436


Programming languages24

Next

Programming Languages

What is Ruby on Rails (RoR)?

  • Open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented, database-driven Web sites

  • Designed to make Web developers more productive

p. 436


Programming languages25

Click to view Web Link,click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Silverlight below Chapter 11

Next

Programming Languages

What is Web page authoring software?

  • Creates sophisticated Web pages without using HTML

  • Generates HTML

p. 436 - 437


Programming languages26

Next

Programming Languages

What is multimedia authoring software?

  • Combines text, graphics, animation, audio, and video into interactive presentation

  • Used for computer-based training (CBT) and Web-based training (WBT)

  • Software includes Toolbook and Director

p. 437 Fig. 11-28


The program development cycle

Next

The Program Development Cycle

What is the program development cycle?

  • Steps programmers use to build computer programs

  • Programming team—Group of programmers working on program

p. 438 - 439 Fig. 11-29


The program development cycle1

Next

The Program Development Cycle

What is a sequence control structure?

  • Control structure that shows actions following each other in order

  • Control structure depicts logical order of program instructions

p. 440 Fig. 11-30


The program development cycle2

Next

The Program Development Cycle

What is a selection control structure?

  • Tells program which action to take, based on a certain condition

  • Two types

  • Case control structure

  • If-then-else control structure—yields one of two possibilities: true or false

p. 440 Fig. 11-31


The program development cycle3

Next

The Program Development Cycle

What is a case control structure?

  • Yields one of three or more possibilities

p. 440 - 441 Fig. 11-32


The program development cycle4

Next

The Program Development Cycle

What is a repetition control structure?

  • Enables program to perform one or more actions repeatedly

  • Do-while control structure—repeats as long as condition is true

  • Do-until control structure—repeats until condition is true

p. 442 Figs. 11-33–11-34


Companies on the cutting edge

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Companies on the Cutting Edge

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Summary of information system development and programming languages

Summary of Information System Development and Programming Languages

Phases in the system development life cycle

Various programming languages and program development tools used to create and modify computer programs

Web development and multimedia development tools

Guidelines for system development

Program development cycle

Activities that occur during the entire system development cycle

Chapter 11 Complete


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