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World War I. Marching Toward War . Rising Tensions in Europe The Rise of Nationalism By 1907 Europe was split into two rival sides Germany , Austria, and Italy (The Triple Alliance) France , Britain, and Russia (The Triple Entente)

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marching toward war
Marching Toward War

Rising Tensions in Europe

  • The Rise of Nationalism
  • By 1907 Europe was split into two rival sides
    • Germany, Austria, and Italy (The Triple Alliance)
    • France, Britain, and Russia (The Triple Entente)
  • Both sides formed alliances to protect the other if one was attacked
  • Each nation-state saw war as a chance to expand the state and achieve their political ambitions
marching toward war1
Marching Toward War
  • Imperialism and Militarism
    • European countries establishing colonies (imperialism) around the world led to an intense competition
    • Between 1890 and 1914 European armies doubled in size as countries sought to build the largest, most technologically advanced militaries (militarism)
marching toward war2
Marching Toward War
  • Crisis in the Balkans
    • A Restless Region
      • As the Ottoman Empire declined, states in the Balkans wanted to free themselves from Ottoman rule; but Austria-Hungary and Russia both wanted to control the states in this region
      • Serbia, supported by Russia, was determined to create a Slavic state in the Balkans but Austria was determined to prevent that from happening; many saw Serbia as a catalyst for war
    • Assassination of Francis Ferdinand
      • June 28, 1914 Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophia were assassinated by GavriloPrincip, a member of a Serbian terrorist organization
marching toward war3
Marching Toward War
  • Austria saw this incident as an opportunity to take out Serbia
  • Austria asked Germany for support
  • With German support, Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia on July 23 which was designed so Serbia would reject it, giving Austria-Hungary the excuse to declare war
  • “July Ultimatum” was rejected and Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28; this launched World War I
marching toward war4
Marching Toward War
  • Declarations of War
    • Russia, supporting Serbia, launched full mobilization of its army to Germany and Austria on July 29th
    • On August 1st, 1914 Germany declared war on Russia
    • On August 2nd, Germany demanded that Belgium (neutral country) allow German troops to pass thru Belgian territory to attack France
    • August 3rd Germany declared war on France
    • On August 4th Britain declared war on Germany “officially” over the violation of Belgian neutrality; this officially launched all the great powers of Europe into war- one which was met with enthusiasm at first
europe plunges into war
Europe Plunges Into War

Great War Begins

  • Nearly all of Europe took sides
  • Germany and Austria-Hungary (later joined by the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria) became known as the Central Powers
  • Great Britain, France, and Russia became known as the Allied Powers (or the Allies); Italy and Japan later joined as well
europe plunges into war1
Europe Plunges Into War

Bloody Stalemate

      • General Alfred von Schlieffen developed the Schlieffen Plan which would prepare Germany for a 2 front war against both France and Russia
    • More troops would be sent to France because Russia lacked railroads to send supplies and troops to the front
    • Plan depended on quick French surrender, after the surrender troops would be sent east to Russia
  • September 1914 Schliffen Plan was in ruins after the Battle of the Marne outside of Paris
    • Allies defeated the Germans and they knew quick victory in France was not possible and Germany would have to fight a two front war
  • A stalemate soon developed where neither side could win a convincing victory
  • Both sides dug into trenches for the next 4 years
europe plunges into war2
Europe Plunges Into War

Trench Warfare

  • Armies on both sides dug miles of trenches and attacked each other across a “no man’s land” (area between the opposing sides trenches) for minimal military gain
  • Life in the trenches was full of mud, poor food, sickness and misery
europe plunges into war3
Europe Plunges Into War

Trench Warfare

  • Trenches stretched 500 miles from the North Sea to the Swiss Border
  • New weapons(tanks, machine guns, poison gas, submarines, airplanes) killed greater numbers of soldiers but did not bring a swift end to warfare
  • 1916 slaughter reached its peak
    • Battle of Verdun 300,000 causalities on both sides
    • Somme River 500,000 causalities over 4 months
  • Gains for each side in these battles? Germans advanced 4 miles, British advanced 5 miles
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Europe Plunges Into War

The Battle on the Eastern Front

      • Stretched from Germany to the Russian border
      • Russians and Serbs battled Germans and Austro-Hungarians
      • More mobile war than in the west
  • Russian Struggles
    • Russia was less industrialized than the rest of Europe
    • Army constantly short of supplies and weapons
    • Harder for Russians to receive supplies because of their access to the ocean
    • Russian armies main asset was men
    • Russians used their advantage in manpower to keep the Germans occupied in the east so they could not fully attack Western Europe 
a global conflict
A Global Conflict

War moved beyond Europe

  • As the war dragged on the European powers looked for new fronts and other allies around the world to help to the balance in their favor
  • Europeans attacked the Ottoman Empire at the Dardanelles
  • Wanted to open a supply line to Russia
  • February 1915 Battle of Gallipoli turned into a bloody stalemate after a huge loss of life
  • In Asia and Africa Germany’s colonial possessions were attacked
  • Japanese attacked German Pacific colonies
  • English and French attacked Germany’s colonies in Africa
    • British and French colonial subjects were enlisted to fight for their colonial masters
a global conflict1
A Global Conflict
  • America Joins the War
  • 1915 Germans use new technology, the submarine, to control the seas
  • Germans begin to sink boats without warning around Britain, policy called unrestricted submarine warfare
  • May 1915 the Germans sink the Lusitania, a British passenger ship that had Americans on board
  • Americans were outraged and the Germans shortly agreed to stop sinking neutral ships
a global conflict2
A Global Conflict
  • Germany did not keep their word about submarine warfare and returned to this tactic in 1917
  • They knew that it could lead to U.S. entering war on the side of the allies
  • Germany hoped that the naval blockade of Great Britain would starve the Allies into defeat before the U.S. entered the war
  • February 1917 the U.S. intercepts the Zimmerman note that promises German help to Mexico regain lost territory to the U.S. if Mexico helps Germany
  • This was the last straw and the Americans entered the war on the side of the Allies
  • April 2, 1917 U.S. declares war on Germany
a global conflict3
A Global Conflict

War Affects the Home Front

  • War affected soldiers and civilians
  • War became a total war, countries devoted all of their resources to winning the conflict
  • Government took control of the economy
    • Told factories what to produce, production all for war effort
    • Goods in short supply were rationed
  • Governments suppressed anti-war activity and used propaganda (one sided information) to keep up morale and support the war effort
  • Many women went to work in factories
  • Changed the view of what people thought women were capable of
a global conflict4
A Global Conflict
  • American troops gave Allies military advantage
  • March 1917 Russia withdraws from the war, no longer had the leadership or resources to continue fighting
  • Germany could focus all of their forces on the Western Front
  • By May 1918 German forces had reached the Marne River
  • July 1918 Allies using fresh American troops defeated the Germans in the Second Battle of the Marne
  • German offensives became less effective, troops became exhausted
  • Fall 1918 Armies of the Central powers began to collapse and surrender
  • Fall 1918 German troops mutinied, deserted, refused to fight
  • Germans signed an armistice with the allies Nov. 11, 1918
a global conflict5
A Global Conflict

Legacy of the War

  • Entire generation of young European men were wiped out
    • 8.5 million died, 21 million were wounded
  • Idea of war on a global scale
  • New technologies led to more destruction and death
  • Economic Impact
    • Drained countries of wealth, to fight was and rebuild
    • Destroyed farmland , villages and towns
  • Led to feelings of insecurity and despair that was reflected in the art and literature of the time
  • The peace treaty promoted anger and resentment
  • We are Making a New World
  • Paul Nash (1918)
a flawed peace
A Flawed Peace
  • January 1919 Allied powers met to discuss what would happen now that the war was over
  • Big Four countries dictated most of the decisions (U.S., France, Great Britain, Italy)
  • Russia, Germany and the other Central Powers were not represented
  • U.S. president Woodrow Wilson came with a plan called the Fourteen Points, Wilson’s plan to bring peace to Europe
  • Main goal was to provide countries with the idea of self determination, or the right to choose their own government
  • European nations wanted to punish Germany and did not want to go along with Wilson’s ideas
a flawed peace1
A Flawed Peace
  • June 1919 Treaty of Versailles was signed between Germany and the Allied powers
  • Treaty established a League of Nations to negotiate peace among nations and to prevent future wars
  • Punished Germany
  • Germany and other Central powers lost huge amounts of territory in Europe, Africa and the Pacific
  • New countries were formed out of the Central Powers
    • Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia
    • In the Middle East former Ottoman Territory came under the control of Great Britain and France
  • Russia also suffered loss of land
a flawed peace2
A Flawed Peace
  • Placed the responsibility of starting the war on Germany and made them have to pay reparations (pay for damages caused by the war) to the Allies
  • Treaty created bitterness and hard feelings in Germany and other European nations
  • Treaty was a factor in starting World War II
  • U.S. came out of the war as a world power
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