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World War I. Marching Toward War . Rising Tensions in Europe The Rise of Nationalism By 1907 Europe was split into two rival sides Germany , Austria, and Italy (The Triple Alliance) France , Britain, and Russia (The Triple Entente)

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Marching toward war
Marching Toward War

Rising Tensions in Europe

  • The Rise of Nationalism

  • By 1907 Europe was split into two rival sides

    • Germany, Austria, and Italy (The Triple Alliance)

    • France, Britain, and Russia (The Triple Entente)

  • Both sides formed alliances to protect the other if one was attacked

  • Each nation-state saw war as a chance to expand the state and achieve their political ambitions

Marching toward war1
Marching Toward War

  • Imperialism and Militarism

    • European countries establishing colonies (imperialism) around the world led to an intense competition

    • Between 1890 and 1914 European armies doubled in size as countries sought to build the largest, most technologically advanced militaries (militarism)

Marching toward war2
Marching Toward War

  • Crisis in the Balkans

    • A Restless Region

      • As the Ottoman Empire declined, states in the Balkans wanted to free themselves from Ottoman rule; but Austria-Hungary and Russia both wanted to control the states in this region

      • Serbia, supported by Russia, was determined to create a Slavic state in the Balkans but Austria was determined to prevent that from happening; many saw Serbia as a catalyst for war

    • Assassination of Francis Ferdinand

      • June 28, 1914 Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophia were assassinated by GavriloPrincip, a member of a Serbian terrorist organization

Marching toward war3
Marching Toward War

  • Austria saw this incident as an opportunity to take out Serbia

  • Austria asked Germany for support

  • With German support, Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia on July 23 which was designed so Serbia would reject it, giving Austria-Hungary the excuse to declare war

  • “July Ultimatum” was rejected and Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28; this launched World War I

Marching toward war4
Marching Toward War

  • Declarations of War

    • Russia, supporting Serbia, launched full mobilization of its army to Germany and Austria on July 29th

    • On August 1st, 1914 Germany declared war on Russia

    • On August 2nd, Germany demanded that Belgium (neutral country) allow German troops to pass thru Belgian territory to attack France

    • August 3rd Germany declared war on France

    • On August 4th Britain declared war on Germany “officially” over the violation of Belgian neutrality; this officially launched all the great powers of Europe into war- one which was met with enthusiasm at first

Europe plunges into war
Europe Plunges Into War

Great War Begins

  • Nearly all of Europe took sides

  • Germany and Austria-Hungary (later joined by the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria) became known as the Central Powers

  • Great Britain, France, and Russia became known as the Allied Powers (or the Allies); Italy and Japan later joined as well

Europe plunges into war1
Europe Plunges Into War

Bloody Stalemate

  • General Alfred von Schlieffen developed the Schlieffen Plan which would prepare Germany for a 2 front war against both France and Russia

  • More troops would be sent to France because Russia lacked railroads to send supplies and troops to the front

  • Plan depended on quick French surrender, after the surrender troops would be sent east to Russia

  • September 1914 Schliffen Plan was in ruins after the Battle of the Marne outside of Paris

    • Allies defeated the Germans and they knew quick victory in France was not possible and Germany would have to fight a two front war

  • A stalemate soon developed where neither side could win a convincing victory

  • Both sides dug into trenches for the next 4 years

  • Europe plunges into war2
    Europe Plunges Into War

    Trench Warfare

    • Armies on both sides dug miles of trenches and attacked each other across a “no man’s land” (area between the opposing sides trenches) for minimal military gain

    • Life in the trenches was full of mud, poor food, sickness and misery

    Europe plunges into war3
    Europe Plunges Into War

    Trench Warfare

    • Trenches stretched 500 miles from the North Sea to the Swiss Border

    • New weapons(tanks, machine guns, poison gas, submarines, airplanes) killed greater numbers of soldiers but did not bring a swift end to warfare

    • 1916 slaughter reached its peak

      • Battle of Verdun 300,000 causalities on both sides

      • Somme River 500,000 causalities over 4 months

    • Gains for each side in these battles? Germans advanced 4 miles, British advanced 5 miles

    Europe plunges into war4
    Europe Plunges Into War

    The Battle on the Eastern Front

    • Stretched from Germany to the Russian border

    • Russians and Serbs battled Germans and Austro-Hungarians

    • More mobile war than in the west

  • Russian Struggles

    • Russia was less industrialized than the rest of Europe

    • Army constantly short of supplies and weapons

    • Harder for Russians to receive supplies because of their access to the ocean

    • Russian armies main asset was men

    • Russians used their advantage in manpower to keep the Germans occupied in the east so they could not fully attack Western Europe 

  • A global conflict
    A Global Conflict

    War moved beyond Europe

    • As the war dragged on the European powers looked for new fronts and other allies around the world to help to the balance in their favor

    • Europeans attacked the Ottoman Empire at the Dardanelles

    • Wanted to open a supply line to Russia

    • February 1915 Battle of Gallipoli turned into a bloody stalemate after a huge loss of life

    • In Asia and Africa Germany’s colonial possessions were attacked

    • Japanese attacked German Pacific colonies

    • English and French attacked Germany’s colonies in Africa

      • British and French colonial subjects were enlisted to fight for their colonial masters

    A global conflict1
    A Global Conflict

    • America Joins the War

    • 1915 Germans use new technology, the submarine, to control the seas

    • Germans begin to sink boats without warning around Britain, policy called unrestricted submarine warfare

    • May 1915 the Germans sink the Lusitania, a British passenger ship that had Americans on board

    • Americans were outraged and the Germans shortly agreed to stop sinking neutral ships

    A global conflict2
    A Global Conflict

    • Germany did not keep their word about submarine warfare and returned to this tactic in 1917

    • They knew that it could lead to U.S. entering war on the side of the allies

    • Germany hoped that the naval blockade of Great Britain would starve the Allies into defeat before the U.S. entered the war

    • February 1917 the U.S. intercepts the Zimmerman note that promises German help to Mexico regain lost territory to the U.S. if Mexico helps Germany

    • This was the last straw and the Americans entered the war on the side of the Allies

    • April 2, 1917 U.S. declares war on Germany

    A global conflict3
    A Global Conflict

    War Affects the Home Front

    • War affected soldiers and civilians

    • War became a total war, countries devoted all of their resources to winning the conflict

    • Government took control of the economy

      • Told factories what to produce, production all for war effort

      • Goods in short supply were rationed

    • Governments suppressed anti-war activity and used propaganda (one sided information) to keep up morale and support the war effort

    • Many women went to work in factories

    • Changed the view of what people thought women were capable of

    A global conflict4
    A Global Conflict

    • American troops gave Allies military advantage

    • March 1917 Russia withdraws from the war, no longer had the leadership or resources to continue fighting

    • Germany could focus all of their forces on the Western Front

    • By May 1918 German forces had reached the Marne River

    • July 1918 Allies using fresh American troops defeated the Germans in the Second Battle of the Marne

    • German offensives became less effective, troops became exhausted

    • Fall 1918 Armies of the Central powers began to collapse and surrender

    • Fall 1918 German troops mutinied, deserted, refused to fight

    • Germans signed an armistice with the allies Nov. 11, 1918

    A global conflict5
    A Global Conflict

    Legacy of the War

    • Entire generation of young European men were wiped out

      • 8.5 million died, 21 million were wounded

    • Idea of war on a global scale

    • New technologies led to more destruction and death

    • Economic Impact

      • Drained countries of wealth, to fight was and rebuild

      • Destroyed farmland , villages and towns

    • Led to feelings of insecurity and despair that was reflected in the art and literature of the time

    • The peace treaty promoted anger and resentment

    • We are Making a New World

    • Paul Nash (1918)

    A flawed peace
    A Flawed Peace

    • January 1919 Allied powers met to discuss what would happen now that the war was over

    • Big Four countries dictated most of the decisions (U.S., France, Great Britain, Italy)

    • Russia, Germany and the other Central Powers were not represented

    • U.S. president Woodrow Wilson came with a plan called the Fourteen Points, Wilson’s plan to bring peace to Europe

    • Main goal was to provide countries with the idea of self determination, or the right to choose their own government

    • European nations wanted to punish Germany and did not want to go along with Wilson’s ideas

    A flawed peace1
    A Flawed Peace

    • June 1919 Treaty of Versailles was signed between Germany and the Allied powers

    • Treaty established a League of Nations to negotiate peace among nations and to prevent future wars

    • Punished Germany

    • Germany and other Central powers lost huge amounts of territory in Europe, Africa and the Pacific

    • New countries were formed out of the Central Powers

      • Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia

      • In the Middle East former Ottoman Territory came under the control of Great Britain and France

    • Russia also suffered loss of land

    A flawed peace2
    A Flawed Peace

    • Placed the responsibility of starting the war on Germany and made them have to pay reparations (pay for damages caused by the war) to the Allies

    • Treaty created bitterness and hard feelings in Germany and other European nations

    • Treaty was a factor in starting World War II

    • U.S. came out of the war as a world power