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Climatology. Climate vs. Weather. The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time. Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere "behaves" over relatively long periods of time.

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Presentation Transcript
climate vs weather
Climate vs. Weather
  • The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time. Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere "behaves" over relatively long periods of time.
  • Climate is usually over a 30 day period or longer.
what controls our climate
What Controls Our Climate?
  • The Sun
  • Atmospheric Gases (Greenhouse Gases)
  • Volcanic Eruptions
  • Surface Albedo (reflectivity) snow cover
  • Ocean Currents
  • Changes in earth’s orbit (Milankovitch Cycles)
  • Meteorite Impacts
  • Living organisms (plants, animals, microbes)
changes in the solar cycle
Changes in the Solar Cycle
  • http://www.rockymountainstars.com/Pre_AP_Geo_Solar_Variation.htm
  • 1645 to 1750 called the Maunder Minimum A period of little to no sunspot activity.
changes in the energy budget
Changes in the Energy Budget
  • Small changes in any of these energy budget parameters will cause the earth to heat up or cool off.
  • Example: More ice would increase reflectivity or albedo creating a positive feedback which would lower the global temperature.
volcanic eruptions
Volcanic Eruptions
  • In 1915 Mt. Tombora erupted in Indonesia. This was the largest eruption in 1,300 years.
  • The dust surrounded the globe which created a constant fog like haze which blocked out sunlight.
  • 1916 was known as the year without a summer. A deep frost occurred over much of the US in June killing off most of the crops.
effect of mt pinatubo
Effect of Mt. Pinatubo
  • The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 put enough aerosols into the stratosphere to lower the global temperature by 0.9 degrees Fahrenheit.
the milankovitch cycles
The Milankovitch Cycles
  • Long term changes in the earth’s orbit (eccentricity) around the sun and axial tilt can change the overall heat balance of our planet.
  • A decrease in the axial tilt will cause less extreme seasons in the upper latitudes. These resulting cooler summers do not melt all the snow & ice from the previous winter which over time can lead to an ice age.
the 100 000 year cycle
The 100,000 year cycle
  • There seems to be correlation with the 100,000 year cycle of the eccentricity in our orbit and ice ages.
banded iron formations bif
Banded Iron Formations BIF
  • The great oxygen event occurred 2.4 billion years ago.
  • Oxygen released from photosynthetic blue-green algae combined with iron in the sediment to create red & black bands of oxidized iron.
  • The banding may be caused by seasonal variations in photosynthesis and oxygen production by algae.
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