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PHIL 2 Philosophy: Ethics in Contemporary Society. Week 4 Topic Outlines. Week 4. Moral Implications of Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing – Chap. 11 Morality, Marriage, and Human Sexuality – Chap. 12.

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Phil 2 philosophy ethics in contemporary society

PHIL 2Philosophy: Ethics in Contemporary Society

Week 4

Topic Outlines


Week 4
Week 4

  • Moral Implications of Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing – Chap. 11

  • Morality, Marriage, and Human Sexuality – Chap. 12

Week 4, PHIL2


Topics 1 2 moral implications of lying cheating breaking promises stealing
Topics 1 & 2: Moral Implications of Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, Stealing

  • Lying, cheating, breaking promises, and stealing

  • Significance of these moral issues

  • Arguments for and against these moral issues

  • Analyzing if an action taken is considered moral or immoral

  • Applying Humanitarian Ethics to moral problems

Week 4, PHIL2


Lying cheating breaking promises and stealing
Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing Breaking Promises, Stealing

  • Lying: intentionally deceiving or giving a wrong impression

    • White lie

    • Lie of commission

    • Lie of omission

  • Cheating: deceiving by trickery or fraud, swindling, misleading

Week 4, PHIL2


Lying cheating breaking promises and stealing continued
Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing Breaking Promises, Stealing (continued)

  • Breaking a Promise: failing to carry out or acting contrary to or otherwise violating a vow

  • Stealing: taking something without right or permission, generally surreptitiously

Week 4, PHIL2


Significance of these moral issues
Significance of Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues

  • These issues affect human relationships and self-worth.

  • They provide unfair advantages to some.

  • They can hurt people emotionally and physically.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues

  • Lying

    • For:

      • Defense of the innocent, including self

      • National security

      • Trade secrets in business

      • “Little white lies”

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Lying

    • Against:

      • Dupes and deprives others

      • Causes distrust in human relationships

      • Begets other lies

      • Gives unfair advantage or power to liar

      • Destroys liar’s power when discovered

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued1
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Cheating

    • For:

      • Surviving and winning in a dog-eat-dog world

      • Everybody does it

      • As long as you don’t get caught…

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued2
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Cheating

    • Against:

      • It’s unfair and unjust to others

      • Can cause harm when done to falsify qualifications

      • Successful cheaters can become lazy

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued3
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Breaking Promises

    • For:

      • When circumstances change

      • When there are moral conflicts

      • When it’s a trivial issue

      • When unusual situations justify it

      • No promise is sacred

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued4
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Breaking Promises

    • Against:

      • Destroys personal relationships

      • Domino theory

      • Affect people’s life choices

      • Destroys general social trust

      • Brings about loss of personal integrity

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued5
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Stealing

    • For:

      • Balances our corrupt economic system

      • Justified in crucial emergency situations

      • Provides thrills and adventure

      • Recoups profits made by large institutions and organization

      • As long as you don’t get caught…

      • Military and government secrets

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued6
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Stealing

    • Against:

      • Violates another’s property rights

      • Causes breakdown of trust

      • Invades privacy

      • Domino argument

      • Causes material loss to victims

      • Affects thief’s self-image

      • Engenders fear and social breakdown

Week 4, PHIL2


Analyzing if an action taken is considered moral or immoral
Analyzing If an Action Taken Is Considered Moral or Immoral Breaking Promises, Stealing

  • Case studies

    • Lying

    • Cheating

    • Breaking promises

    • Stealing

Week 4, PHIL2


Applying humanitarian ethics to moral problems
Applying Humanitarian Ethics Breaking Promises, Stealing to Moral Problems

  • Lying generally is immoral without strong justification.

  • Cheating is primarily a violation of the Principle of Justice or Fairness and should be avoided unless such an act would prevent harm to someone.

Week 4, PHIL2


Applying humanitarian ethics to moral problems continued
Applying Humanitarian Ethics Breaking Promises, Stealing to Moral Problems (continued)

  • Breaking promises is acceptable only to save someone from harm or death; no promise is too trivial to keep.

  • Stealing violates the principles of Justice, Honesty and Individual Freedom; it is immoral unless strong justification exists.

Week 4, PHIL2


Topics 3 4 morality marriage and human sexuality
Topics 3 & 4: Morality, Breaking Promises, Stealing Marriage, and Human Sexuality

  • Public, societal, and private aspects of human sexuality

  • Moral issues involved in sexuality

  • Arguments for and against these moral issues

  • Determining if actions taken are considered moral or immoral

  • Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the moral problems of human sexuality

Week 4, PHIL2


Public societal and private aspects of human sexuality
Public, Societal, and Private Aspects of Human Sexuality Breaking Promises, Stealing

  • Public aspects of human sexuality are concerned with how matters of sex overtly affect others.

  • The governing principles of morality here are life, goodness, and justice.

Week 4, PHIL2


Public societal and private aspects of human sexuality cont
Public, Societal, and Private Aspects of Human Sexuality Breaking Promises, Stealing (cont.)

  • Private aspect is concerned with sexual relations between or among consenting adults.

  • The governing principles here are goodness, justice, freedom, and honesty.

Week 4, PHIL2


Moral issues involved in sexuality
Moral Issues Involved in Sexuality Breaking Promises, Stealing

  • Private aspects

    • Procreation, or a necessary evil

    • Personal freedom to enjoy pleasure

    • Expression of love or like

Week 4, PHIL2


Moral issues involved in sexuality continued
Moral Issues Involved in Sexuality (continued) Breaking Promises, Stealing

  • Public aspects

    • Sexual activity that brings harm, such as rape, molestation, unwilling sadism

    • Pornography

    • Unnatural activities

    • Adultery, premarital sex

    • Prostitution

    • Non-monogamous marriage

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues1
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues

  • Premarital sex

    • For:

      • Old moral traditions are no longer applicable.

      • Abstinence is not acceptable.

      • Proper precautions can eliminate most concerns about disease and pregnancy.

      • Promiscuity does not necessarily result, but even if it does, the people are consenting adults.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued7
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Premarital sex

    • For:

      • There is much less ostracism today over illegitimate children.

      • Premarital sex lets people gain sexual experience and test compatibility before marriage.

      • Premarital sex is a private, not public, matter.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued8
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Premarital sex

    • Against:

      • It undermines traditional morality and family values.

      • It fosters promiscuity.

      • It fosters social diseases and AIDS.

      • It can be detrimental to the children born of such a relationship.

      • It fosters guilt and ostracism.

      • It is prohibited in the Bible.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued9
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Adultery

    • For:

      • Individuals are free to do what they want in their own private sex lives.

      • What spouses don’t know won’t hurt them.

      • Marriages generally should not be broken up because of the harm to financial security and the children.

      • Sex outside of marriage is just another lifestyle.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued10
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Adultery

    • Against:

      • It violates traditional family values and the most intimate contract between two people.

      • It involves lying, cheating, and infidelity.

      • It can destroy the marriage relationship.

      • It brings the danger of social disease to an innocent person.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued11
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Masturbation

    • For:

      • It is perfectly normal, both biologically and psychologically.

      • It causes no ill effects.

      • It is the best way of learning about sex and our own bodies.

      • It is the safest form of sexual activity.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued12
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Masturbation

    • Against:

      • It is an abuse of one’s sexuality, which is a gift from God.

      • It causes people to become preoccupied with sex and can lead to other sexual violations of morality, such as fornication, adultery, and pornography.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued13
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Pornography

    • For:

      • Consenting adults can view, read or listen to anything they wish.

      • There is no proof that pornography is degrading or will destroy our moral fabric.

      • It is not degrading and exploitative, but rather it is exciting and pleasurable.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued14
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Pornography

    • Against:

      • It is humanly degrading and as it becomes widespread it will destroy the moral fabric of our civilization.

      • It can involve actual sex crimes.

      • It degrades human sexuality in general and women in particular.

      • It encourages trafficking in sex, rape, child molestation, sadism, and other perversions

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued15
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Prostitution

    • For:

      • It is a safe release in a sexual repressive society.

      • It is a victimless crime that both parties enter into freely.

      • If there were social acceptance and governmental control, the criminal and social disease aspects would be eliminated.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued16
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Prostitution

    • Against:

      • Extramarital and commercialized sex is immoral from the conservative point of view.

      • Prostitution causes crime and degradation.

      • It spreads social diseases and AIDS.

Week 4, PHIL2


Arguments for and against these moral issues continued17
Arguments For and Against Breaking Promises, Stealing These Moral Issues (continued)

  • Sexual perversion, or “unnatural” activity

    • For:

      • As long as a sex act is performed between or among freely consenting adults, it is a private matter and should be considered moral.

    • Against:

      • The only sex act that isn’t perverted is intercourse between a man and a woman in the missionary position.

Week 4, PHIL2


Determining if actions taken are considered moral or immoral
Determining If Actions Taken Are Considered Moral or Immoral Breaking Promises, Stealing

  • Case studies:

    • Premarital sex

    • Homosexuality

    • Cohabitation

    • Adultery

    • Pornography

Week 4, PHIL2


Applying humanitarian ethics to the moral problems of human sexuality
Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Human Sexuality

  • In matters of private sexuality, individual freedom should be the guiding principle as long as the rights of the people immediately involved in the relationship are also observed.

  • Private sexual matters should not be legislated against.

Week 4, PHIL2


Week 41
Week 4 Sexuality

Thiroux, Jacques P.

Ethics – Theory and Practice, 8th ed.

Chapters 11-12

Week 4, PHIL2


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