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Considering the Establishment Survey Response Process in the Context of the Administrative Sciences. Diane K. Willimack U.S. Census Bureau. Survey Methodology draws upon multiple disciplines –. Statistics/sampling Psychology Sociology Economics Political science Computer science

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Considering the establishment survey response process in the context of the administrative sciences

Considering the Establishment Survey Response Process in the Context of the Administrative Sciences

Diane K. Willimack

U.S. Census Bureau


Survey methodology draws upon multiple disciplines
Survey Methodology draws upon multiple disciplines –

  • Statistics/sampling

  • Psychology

  • Sociology

  • Economics

  • Political science

  • Computer science

  • Human-computer interaction


Examples
Examples

  • Cognitive response model

    draws upon Cognitive Psychology

  • Survey participation decision models

    draw upon Social Psychology

  • Web survey design

    draws upon Software Development & Human-Computer Interaction


draws upon

Household Survey Research Methods

Establishment survey methodology


Tourangeau s 1984 cognitive response model

Survey

Tourangeau’s(1984)Cognitive Response Model

  • Comprehension

  • Retrieval

  • Judgment

  • Communication


Response process model for establishment surveys sudman et al ices 2

Business Survey

Response Process Model for Establishment Surveys Sudman et al., ICES-2

Encoding in Memory / Record Formation

Selection / Identification of Respondent(s)

Assessment of Priorities (Motivation)

  • Comprehension

  • Retrieval

  • Judgment

  • Communication

  • from Memory and / or Records

  • Release of the Data


Response process model for establishment surveys sudman et al ices 21

Organizational in Nature

Response Process Model for Establishment Surveys Sudman et al., ICES-2

Encoding in Memory / Record Formation

Selection / Identification of Respondent(s)

Assessment of Priorities (Motivation)

  • Comprehension

  • Retrieval

  • Judgment

  • Communication

  • from Memory and / or Records

  • Release of the Data


Disciplines relevant for surveys of businesses and organizations
Disciplines relevant for surveys of businesses and organizations –

  • Organizational behavior

  • Managerial science

  • Administrative science

  • Behavior of people in organizations


Synthesis of literatures
Synthesis of Literatures organizations –

  • Social psychology of organizations

  • Social behavior within organizations

  • Administrative behavior

  • Managerial science


Social Behavior organizations –

  • Attributes of Organization

  • Structure

  • Differentiation of functions

  • (De)centralization

  • Authority hierarchies

  • Coordination

  • Effectiveness

Organizational Goals

Produce goods & services

Maintain viability over time

People


  • Attributes of Organization organizations –

  • Structure

  • Differentiation of functions

  • (De)centralization

  • Authority hierarchies

  • Coordination

  • Effectiveness

Organizational Goals

Produce goods & services

Maintain viability over time

WORK!

People


How is work accomplished
How is work accomplished? organizations –

  • Divisions of labor

  • Managerial hierarchies

  • Information subsystems


How is work accomplished1
How is work accomplished? organizations –

  • Coordination

  • Communication

  • Cooperation

  • Individual self-control and self-directed behavior


The establishment survey response process work
The establishment survey response process organizations –= WORK.

  • Fails to contribute to organization’s goals

  • Intra-organizational “project” without organizational sanctions

  • Relies on social norms of cooperation and self-directed behavior


Dimensions of social behavior in organizations
Dimensions of Social Behavior organizations –in Organizations

  • Authority

  • Responsibility

  • Accountability

  • Influence

  • Allegiance / Loyalty


Dimensions of social behavior in organizations1
Dimensions of Social Behavior organizations –in Organizations

  • Authority

    • Decision-maker re: survey participation

    • Release data

    • Delegate activity


Dimensions of social behavior in organizations continued
Dimensions of Social Behavior organizations –in Organizations continued

  • Responsibility

    • Without authority

    • Capacity

      • Knowledge of data sources

      • Access to data

  • Accountability

    • Job performance criteria & evaluation


Dimensions of social behavior in organizations continued1
Dimensions of Social Behavior organizations –in Organizations continued

  • Influence

    • Authority

    • Reciprocation

    • Commitment / consistency

    • Social proof

    • Liking

    • Scarcity


Dimensions of social behavior in organizations continued2
Dimensions of Social Behavior organizations –in Organizations continued

  • Allegiance / Loyalty

    • Personal goals Organization’s goals

    • Decisions & actions Organization’s goals


Social behavior role taking work
Social Behavior + Role-taking = Work organizations –

Role-taking – the manifestation of social behavior among persons in organizations for the purpose of accomplishing work.

  • Coordination

  • Communication

  • Interpersonal interaction

  • Cooperation


Role episode

Role Receiver: organizations –

“Focal Person”

Role Sender

Sent

Role

Role

Behavior

Role Episode

Expectations

Received

Role


Role episode responding to a survey

Personal attributes organizations –

of ‘LDP’

Organi-

zational

factors

that

convey

to R

Request for

Information

Sent Role:

Data specs

Influence

Role

Behavior:

Compliance

Interpersonal factors

associated with ‘LDP’

Role Episode: Responding to a Survey

Focal Person

Role Sender

“Local Data Provider”

(LDP)

Respondent (R)

Expectations:

Compliance

Received Role:

Interprets

R’s request


Role episode between ldp and supervisor

Personal attributes organizations –

of ‘LDP’

Role Sender

Supervisor

Expectations:

Compliance

Sent Role:

Assignment

Authority

Role

Behavior:

Compliance

Interpersonal factors

associated with ‘LDP’

Role Episode between LDP and Supervisor

Focal Person

Organi-

zational

factors

that

convey

to the

Super-

visor

“Local Data Provider”

(LDP)

Received Role:

Assigned work

Performance criteria


Role conflict
Role Conflict organizations –

  • Role episodes between:

    • R and LDP

    • LDP and Supervisor


Role episodes a framework for evaluating response process
Role Episodes: A Framework for Evaluating Response Process organizations –

  • “Draw” the role episode diagram for people involved in providing survey data

  • Account for multiple roles of each player

  • Study, understand, analyze interactions between people in the organization


Role episodes a framework for evaluating response process continued
Role Episodes: A Framework for Evaluating Response Process organizations –continued

  • Use as a tool

    • Diagnose potential problems and breakdowns

    • Suggest strategies that facilitate response process

    • Avoid strategies that hinder organizational processes


Census bureau examples

Census Bureau organizations –Examples


Developing data collection software for the u s economic census
Developing Data Collection Software for the U.S. Economic Census

  • Detailed establishment-level data

  • “Task analysis” with business respondents

    • “How do respondents go about pulling together all this data?”


Developing data collection software for the u s economic census continued
Developing Data Collection Software for the U.S. Economic Census continued

  • Pervasive use of spreadsheets

    • Means of communication

    • Organizational norm for exchanging data

  • Some Rs lacked response “capacity” – e.g., knowledge of specific data items

    • Unable to “assign” items to LDPs

  • R  LDP: sent role relied on differentiation of expertise


Developing data collection software for the u s economic census continued1
Developing Data Collection Software for the U.S. Economic Census continued

  • Re-engineered software

    • Versatile spreadsheet functionality

    • Supported organizational context for R’s and LDP’s roles


Survey of information communication technology ict

ICT Census

Annual

Company-level

Data on expenses

Annual Capital Expenditures Survey (ACES)

Annual

Company-level

Data on capital expenditures

Survey of Information & Communication Technology (ICT)

Can these two surveys be joined?


Ict and aces continued
ICT and ACES Census continued

  • Problem: Operating Expenses vs. Capital Expenditures

    • Different uses by management

    • Different treatment by tax rules

  • Possible implications:

    • Distributed knowledge

    • Different data systems?

    • Different respondents?


Ict and aces continued1
ICT and ACES Census continued

  • Pretesting results

    • Best ACES respondent  best ICT respondent

    • ACES respondent wanted to –

      • Receive ICT form

      • Take responsibility for gathering ICT data

  • Role Episode:

    • Role sender – ACES respondent

    • Focal person – LDP for ICT data


Ict and aces continued2
ICT and ACES Census continued

  • Design solution

    • Separate forms / separate return envelopes

    • Used ACES respondent as contact person

  • Supports a variety of potential social behaviors by ACES respondent

    • No direct access to ICT data

      • Coordinates / compiles data from ICT sources

    • Direct access to ICT data

      • Gathers all data and responds


Conclusions

Conclusions Census


Survey organizations
Survey organizations… Census

  • Are members of businesses’ external environment

  • Have indirect / disjoint relationship with businesses

  • Cannot manage the response process


Models of social behavior in organizations
Models of Social Behavior Census in Organizations

  • Framework for studying organizational context for survey response process

  • Address research questions

    • Who is the “right” respondent?

      • Interplay between Authority and Responsibility / Capacity

    • How to facilitate reporting from multiple data sources?

      • Respondents, “Local Data Providers,” and Role Episodes

    • What are effects of alternative data collection strategies on data quality?


Future research
Future Research Census

  • Other theories / models of social behavior in organizations

    • Management

    • Influence

    • Authority

  • Do this approach add value?

  • How can it be applied?


  • Feedback? Comments? Questions? Census

  • Go Forth and Research!!

    Diane K. Willimack

    U.S. Census Bureau

    [email protected]

    ph. 301-763-3538


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