Analysis and Comparison of Test Results from the Small Wind Research Turbine
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Analysis and Comparison of Test Results from the Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) Test Project. Dave Corbus, Dan Prascher Presentation at the 24 th ASME Wind Energy Symposium January 10-13, 2005. SWRT Test Background. SWRT Test

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Dave Corbus, Dan Prascher Presentation at the 24 th ASME Wind Energy Symposium

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Dave corbus dan prascher presentation at the 24 th asme wind energy symposium

Analysis and Comparison of Test Results from the Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) Test Project

Dave Corbus, Dan Prascher

Presentation at the 24th ASME Wind Energy Symposium

January 10-13, 2005


Swrt test background

SWRT Test Background

  • SWRT Test

    • Supply data for model validation of small furling wind turbines

    • Increase understanding of furling and small wind turbine dynamics

    • Further state-of-the-art test procedures for small wind turbines


Swrt testing and model development

SWRT Testing and Model Development

  • SWRT Test

    • Three different turbine configurations tested

    • Most comprehensive small turbine test

  • Upgrade FAST model to include furling

    • Perform model comparisons between SWRT FAST and ADAMS models and FAST and SWRT

  • Models often break down more for small turbine conditions

    • In and out of stall more

    • More yawed flow conditions

    • Dynamically active turbine


Swrt test description

SWRT Test Description

Yaw slip rings and encoder

Flap and edge blade strain gages

Furl Sensor

Rotor slip ring, encoder, and amplifiers

Sonic anemometer junction box

Shaft sensor

Tower leg load cell “washers”


Swrt shaft sensor first accurate small turbine thrust measurements

SWRT shaft sensor - first accurate small turbine thrust measurements


Shaft sensor

Shaft Sensor

  • Measures Shaft 0/90 bending, torque, thrust on fixed frame

  • 4 by 4 cross-talk matrix

  • Critical path load is the shaft bending from gyroscopic loads

    • During high yaw rate events and high rpm


Pre testing turbine characterization

Pre-testing Turbine Characterization

Data for modeling included:

  • Tail assembly and main frame:

    • Weight, Cg, bi-filar, moment of inertia about yaw axis

  • Magnet can Cg and moment of inertia

  • Tail damper properties

  • Exact turbine geometries

  • Blade modal test


Data analysis edge correction

Data Analysis – Edge Correction

3 edge summation in-plane did not equal torque

  • About 3-5x higher due to centrifugal loading!

    • But slow rolls validate calibrations

  • Moment arm created

    • Blade Cg minus centerline of rotation

    • Difference in edge gage neutral axis and blade Cg


Moment arm for edge correction

Moment Arm for Edge Correction


Edge corrected by unloaded correlation

Edge Corrected by Unloaded Correlation


Max and mean furl vs mean wind speed

Max and Mean Furl vs. Mean Wind Speed


Yaw rate vs mean wind speed

Yaw Rate vs. Mean Wind Speed


Electrical power vs mean wind speed

Electrical Power vs. Mean Wind Speed


Rotor speed vs mean wind speed

Rotor Speed vs. Mean Wind Speed


Thrust vs mean wind speed

Thrust vs. Mean Wind Speed


Furl vs thrust

Furl vs. Thrust


Swrt furling event time series plot

SWRT Furling Event – Time Series Plot


Furling and center of thrust

Furling and Center of Thrust


Swrt test configurations

SWRT Test Configurations

All configurations tested with inverter load

Total of 514 10-minute records

A few resistor load files taken for each configuration

Some scatter in rpm-torque curve from inverter controller hysteresis

SWRT Configuration


Furl vs wind speed for different configurations

Furl vs. Wind Speed for Different Configurations


Thrust vs wind speed for different configurations

Thrust vs. Wind Speed for Different Configurations


Ratio of tail met wind speed vs wind speed

Ratio of Tail/Met Wind Speed vs. Wind Speed


Power thrust ratio for configurations a and c

Power/Thrust Ratio for Configurations A and C


Power vs wind speed for configuration a and c

Power vs. Wind Speed for Configuration A and C


Shaft tilt moment vs wind speed for different configurations

Shaft tilt moment vs. wind speed for different configurations


Shaft yaw moment vs wind speed for different configurations

Shaft yaw moment vs. wind speed for different configurations


Furling and inflow

Furling and Inflow

  • Use sonic anemometer and meteorological data

  • Correlate inflow parameters and furling

  • Shows significance of vertical wind component and coherent turbulent kinetic energy


Furling and richardson number

Furling and Richardson Number


Dave corbus dan prascher presentation at the 24 th asme wind energy symposium

- CoTKE and vertical gust variance for two files with same wind speed and different furl


Swrt summary

SWRT Summary

  • Most comprehensive small turbine test data set

  • Better understanding of small wind turbine dynamic behavior, including thrust and furling

  • SWRT test data and modeling effort will help make furling design efforts for small wind turbines easier, but furling remains a challenge!

  • Better test procedures for small turbine testing

  • Inflow analysis shows effects of turbulence

  • Data will be available on NREL Website and final technical report available soon

  • SWRT FAST modeling results presented tomorrow morning


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