A comparison of municipal responsibilities and resources
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A Comparison of Municipal Responsibilities and Resources. Enid Slack Institute on Municipal Finance and Governance Munk Centre for International Studies University of Toronto Presentation to the Union des Municipalit é s du Qu é bec May 10, 2007. Introduction.

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A Comparison of Municipal Responsibilities and Resources

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A comparison of municipal responsibilities and resources

A Comparison of Municipal Responsibilities and Resources

Enid Slack

Institute on Municipal Finance and Governance

Munk Centre for International Studies

University of Toronto

Presentation to the

Union des Municipalités du Québec

May 10, 2007


Introduction

Introduction

  • Do municipalities have sufficient revenue-raising capacity to meet their expenditure needs? Is there a fiscal imbalance?

  • This presentation will provide an inter-provincial comparison of recent trends in municipal expenditures and revenues

  • The information is based on Statistics Canada data


Municipal expenditures per capita 2005

Municipal Expenditures per Capita, 2005


Municipal responsibilities

Municipal Responsibilities

  • Municipalities in all provinces provide:

    • Water and sewers

    • Roads and streets

    • Solid waste collection/disposal

    • Parks and recreation

    • Planning

    • Policing (not all municipalities)

    • Fire protection (not all municipalities)


Municipal responsibilities1

Municipal Responsibilities

  • Québec municipalities are also responsible for:

    • Courts of law

    • Public transit

    • Health services (small expenditures)

    • Social expenditures (but not social assistance)

    • Housing

    • Tourism and promotion


Municipal expenditures 2005

Municipal Expenditures, 2005


Trends in municipal expenditures

Trends in Municipal Expenditures

  • Which expenditures have increased?

    • Protection (fire and police), housing (mainly in Ontario), environmental (water, sewers, garbage), social services

  • Which expenditures have decreased as % of total expenditures?

    • Transportation (not in Québec), debt charges


Municipal revenues 2005

Municipal Revenues, 2005


Municipal revenues per capita 2005

Municipal Revenues Per Capita, 2005


Municipal revenues in selected provinces

Municipal Revenues in Selected Provinces

  • Land transfer tax: Nova Scotia, Québec, permitted in Manitoba

  • Amusement taxes: Nova Scotia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, BC

  • Hotel taxes: Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, BC, Québec, permitted in Manitoba

  • Poll tax: Newfoundland, parcel tax in BC

  • Revenue sharing (income tax, fuel tax, VLT/casino revenues): Manitoba

  • Provincial fuel tax sharing: BC, Alberta, Ontario, Québec


Trends in municipal revenues

Trends in Municipal Revenues

  • Which revenues have increased as % of total revenues?

    • Property taxes and user fees

  • Which revenues have decreased as % of total revenues?

    • Intergovernmental transfers fell across Canada but not in Québec (still a smaller % of total revenues)


Summary of expenditures and revenues

Summary of Expenditures and Revenues

  • Municipalities in all provinces provide similar services; some additional services are provided by municipalities in only some provinces

  • All municipalities levy property taxes and user fees and receive provincial transfers; municipalities in some provinces levy land transfer taxes, hotel taxes, etc.


Is there a fiscal imbalance

Is There a Fiscal Imbalance?

  • Municipalities have done well on fiscal measures:

    • Size of the operating deficit (no deficit by statute)

    • Amount of borrowing for capital

    • Size of reserves

    • Rate of property tax increases

    • Reliance on provincial grants

    • Extent of tax arrears


Is there a fiscal imbalance1

Is There a Fiscal Imbalance?

  • Fiscal health may been achieved at the expense of the overall health of Canadian municipalities:

    • The state of municipal infrastructure (water, sewers, roads, recreational facilities, etc.)

    • The quality of service delivery


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