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THE DIPLOMACY OF GREAT POWER RIVALRY. THE ORIGINS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1870-1914. OUTLINE. 1- Europe in the World: 1870-1914 2- Nationalisms and internationalisms 3-The evolution of war in the early 20 th century

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The diplomacy of great power rivalry

THE DIPLOMACY OF GREAT POWER RIVALRY

THE ORIGINS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

1870-1914


Outline
OUTLINE

1- Europe in the World: 1870-1914

2- Nationalisms and internationalisms

3-The evolution of war in the early 20th century

4- The souvenir of 1870, Alsace-Lorraine and revenge: Franco-German relations until 1914

5- Economic and colonial rivalries

6- The evolution of international relations: 1905-1914

7- Balkan entanglements

8-Assassination in Sarajevo: the march to war




The 19th century the first golden age of globalization
THE 19TH CENTURY: THE FIRST GOLDEN AGE OF GLOBALIZATION

The Industrial Revolution: acceleration of globalization

The impact of new technologies


The rights of man and democracy
THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND DEMOCRACY

Equality between men

The people is sovereign

=

THE BIRTH OF MODERN DEMOCRACY


The evolution of warfare
THE EVOLUTION OF WARFARE

The end of dynastic conflicts

New technological innovations - The American Civil War (1861-1865)


European expansionism
EUROPEAN EXPANSIONISM

Increased technological gap Europe-Non European societies

Europe’s expansionism accelerates in the 19th century


The origin of species
THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES

Darwin

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck


Evolution by natural selection
EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION

A common universal ancestor


Social darwinism
SOCIAL DARWINISM

The survival of the fittest in society

Little to no government interference

Herbert Spencer

EACH PERSON CONTROLS HIS OR HER ECONOMIC DESTINY


John d rockefeller
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER

“The growth of large corporation is merely a survival of the fittest, the working out of a law of nature and a law of God.”



The far east
THE FAR EAST

Two powerful states: China & Japan

China (the Middle-Kingdom): One of the largest empires on the planet

Strong political and administrative centralization (30,000 imperial bureaucrats)


The decline of china
THE DECLINE OF CHINA

The First Opium War (1839-1842) and the Treaty of Nanking: British economic penetration in China + Hong Kong

Political anarchy = Treaty of Tientsin (1858) and increased European economic penetration

1860: the Franco-British expedition

Permanent European embassies in China






Japan s response to western colonization
JAPAN’S RESPONSE TO WESTERN COLONIZATION

The Meiji era (1868-1912)

Traditional Japanese values such as honor and sacrifice were put to the new Japan’s service

Systematic imitation of foreign traditions


A reaction to the western threat
A REACTION TO THE ‘WESTERN THREAT’

European-style military instruction

The learning of English

Diplomatic missions to the U.S. and Europe

The assimilation of Western technologies

FukuzawaYukichi


The rise of japan s expansionism
THE RISE OF JAPAN’S EXPANSIONISM

The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): the first major military victory of an Asian power over a European nation

Korea colonized (1910)

COLLISION COURSE WITH THE UNITED STATES


The united states and the monroe doctrine 1823
THE UNITED STATES AND THE MONROE DOCTRINE (1823)

“the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”

1861-1866: No to the French expedition to Mexico

From continental to global expansion


The treaty of paris 1898
THE TREATY OF PARIS (1898)

1- The “independence” of Cuba

2- The Philippines, Puerto Rican and Guam granted to the U.S. in return for a $20 million payment to Spain

The U.S. had already annexed Wake Island and Hawaii

INTENSE DEBATE: EXPANSIONISTS vs. ISOLATIONISTS


Economic considerations
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

The end of the frontier (1890) = the need to find new markets for American goods

The Chinese market: 400 million consumers

Intense lobbying: the American China Development Company

The Philippines: a door to China


The first open door note 1898
THE FIRST “OPEN DOOR NOTE” (1898)

1- China’s territorial integrity MUST be respected

2- European powers MUST permit free trade ports in their spheres of influence

Secretary of State - John Hay


1900 the boxer rebellion
1900: THE BOXER REBELLION

Foreign intervention

Expansion of existing spheres of influence

The Second Open Door Note

An American sphere of influence

China’s weakened state = deep resentment among Chinese


Manifest destiny
“MANIFEST DESTINY”

A key global role for the U.S.

The rise of jingoism (nationalism + racism): the superiority of the “Anglo-Saxon race”

To bring freedom, democracy and progress to “inferior” races – The “White Man’s Burden”

AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM




A constitutional revolution in iran 1905 1906
A CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION IN IRAN (1905-1906)

A constitutional monarchy

BUT

1907: Great Britain and Russia agreed on a possible dismemberment of Iran



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