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Multicultural Networks. Effective Communication in a Global Environment. What is culture. Observable behaviour. Values and assumptions. Layers of culture. Right or wrong. Language, food, dress religion, buildings, fashion, art . Good or Bad. Assumptions about existence.

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Multicultural networks

Multicultural Networks

Effective Communication in a Global Environment


What is culture
What is culture

Observable behaviour

Values and assumptions


Layers of culture
Layers of culture

Right or wrong

Language, food, dress

religion, buildings, fashion, art

Good or Bad

Assumptions about existence


Cultural differences
Cultural differences

Type of Culture

How we relate to people

How we relate to time


Relationship with people
Relationship with people

Individualism Communitarian

Neutral Emotional

Universalism Particularism

Achievement Ascription


Universalist
Universalist

  • Rules, regulations and procedures very important

  • Agreement is usually supported by legal contract

  • There is the law, and that is that

  • A person’s trustworthiness is based on honouring their word or contract


Particularist
Particularist

  • Relationships more important than rules

  • Legal contracts and be easily modified

  • The law is relative

  • A person’s trustworthiness is based on whether they respond to changing circumstances


High context cultures
High-Context Cultures

  • Indirect and circuitous forms of relating

  • Tactful, evasive and ambiguous

  • Operates through personal relationships and trust

  • Negotiations slow and ritualistic


Low context cultures
Low Context cultures

  • Direct and to the point

  • Precise, blunt and transparent

  • Operates through legalistic framework

  • Negotiation as structured as possible


Low context

High Context


Individuals
Individuals

  • Use of the “I” form in communication

  • Instant decision making by representatives

  • Achievement is personal

  • Individual assumes responsibility for actions

  • Holidays taken in pairs or sometimes alone


Communitarians
Communitarians

  • Use of the “we” form

  • Decisions referred back by delegates to organisations

  • Achievement is group based and joint responsibility is assumed for actions


Individualism

Encourage

individual

freedom and

responsibility

However…..

We need to avoid

Conformism and slow

Decision making, so we must….

We don’t want to degenerate

Into self-centredness, so we

Must……

Encourage individuals to

Work for consensus in the interest

Of the group although……

Communitarianism


Verbal communication
Verbal communication

Low-Context A

B

High-Context A

B

Oriental A

B


Tone of voice
Tone of voice

Low-Context

High-Context

Oriental


Neutral cultures
Neutral Cultures

  • Hide emotions

  • Cool and controlled behaviour is admired

  • Physical contact and strong expression of body language is taboo

  • Emotions that are controlled may sometimes explode


Affective cultures
Affective Cultures

  • Thoughts and feelings are expressed verbally and non-verbally

  • Expression of disagreement is uninhibited

  • Lively discussion with lots of emotion admired

  • Frequent physical contact and open expression of body language permissible


Achievement
Achievement

  • Titles are only used when relevant

  • Respect for hierarchy is based on effectiveness and ability of jobholder

  • Senior managers may be of varying age and gender

  • Senior managers hold their position based on competence and qualifications


Ascription
Ascription

  • Titles used extensively to indicate status in organisation

  • Respect for hierarchy is required to demonstrate commitment to the organisation

  • Senior managers are usually male, middle-aged and qualified by background, formal qualifications and connections


Time

Sequentially

Synchronically


Resolution
Resolution

Respect Tolerance

Understanding

Cooperation


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