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Kristallnacht. “The Night of Broken Glass”. Sara Weiskotten. Zoe Waters. Anti-Semitism. Hostility toward or prejudice against Jews or Judaism. Anti-Semitism before Hitler. Medieval Europe: Medieval Christian Churches barred Jews from owning land, practicing trade and handicrafts

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Kristallnacht

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Kristallnacht

“The Night of Broken Glass”

Sara Weiskotten

Zoe Waters


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Anti-Semitism

Hostility toward or prejudice against Jews or Judaism


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Anti-Semitism before Hitler

Medieval Europe:

  • Medieval Christian Churches barred Jews from owning land, practicing trade and handicrafts

  • Jews were blamed for the death of Jesus

  • Blamed for diseases,famines and economic hardships


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Anti-Semitism before Hitler

1880’s

  • Russia under Alexander III had pogroms against the Jews

  • Their were violent mob attacks, Jews were given restrictions, they were beaten and killed

  • Jewish homes were looted and burned


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The Nuremburg Laws of 1935

Three Laws passed by the Nazis on September 15, 1935

~Also includes several auxiliary Laws that followed

“Legal basis for racial discrimination.”

-http://www.btinternet.com/~ablumsohn/laws.htm


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The Laws Were…

1) To clarify the requirements of citizenship in the Third Reich

2) To assure the purity of German blood and German honor

3) To clarify the position of Jews in the Reich.


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Requirements for Third Reich Citizenship

  • A citizen of the Reich may be only one who is of German or kindred blood

  • Shows that he is both desirous and personally fit to serve the German people and the Reich loyally

General Assault Badge


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German Blood and Honor

Only citizens of the Reich, as bearers of full political rights, can exercise the right of voting in political matters, and have the right to hold public office


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Position of Jews in the Reich

A Jew cannot be a citizen of the Reich.

He/She cannot exercise the right to vote; he/she cannot hold public office.


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Rules for Jews in the Reich, 1938

  • Operation of retail shops, mail order houses, independent exercise of handicrafts is forbidden

  • It is forbidden to offer goods or services in the markets of all kinds, fairs, or exhibitions


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“We are going to destroy the Jews”

-Adolph Hitler


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The Days Before Kristallnacht..

November 7,1938

The assassination of Ernst vom Rath, a German diplomat in Paris, by Herschel Grynszpan

Grynszpan was a

Jewish teenager whose parents, along with 17,000 other Polish Jews, had been expelled from the Reich


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“Fists are hammering at the door. The shutters are broken open. We can hear the heavy cupboards crashing to the floor. Two Storm Troopers run upstairs, shouting at the top of their voices:

‘Out with the Jews!’”

A Jewish boy in Emden, Germany, 1938


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Kristallnacht

November 9, 1938

The Nazis unleashed a wave of pogroms against Jews in Germany

Emden Synagogue


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101 synagogues and almost 7,500 Jewish businesses were destroyed


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Sites of destruction towards Jewish synagogues and businesses


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Movement of Jews

1937-1938

Movement of Jews started as a part of the Anti-Semitic campaign

The main movement of Jews occurred after “The Night of Broken Glass”


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26,000 Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps, Jews were physically attacked and beaten, 91 died


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Review Questions

  • What is anti-Semitism? Provide some examples that predate Hitler.

  • What were the Nuremberg laws of 1935? Provide several examples.

  • Describe the incident that led to the “Night of Broken Glass”.

  • What was Kristallnacht?

  • When did moving the Jews to the concentration camps begin?


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Sources

  • http://www.btinternet.com/~ablumsohn/laws.htm (Accessed 5/30/03)This site explains the Nuremberg Laws, This site was VERY informational. It spelled out everything that the laws said.

  • http://online.mepl.co.uk/graphics/10061547a.jpg(Accessed 5/30/03) Picture of Germans closing a Jewish shop. This site was a good source for pictures of times in countries invaded by Germany in the 1930’s to 1940’s.

  • http://www.eais.net/(Accessed 5/30/03) Picture of a horse in a field, This site was a farming site but had the picture I needed to show my point.

  • http://www.aw.com/catalog/academic/product/0,4096,0582369649,00.html (accessed 5/30/03) Talks about anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany and in other places such as Russia and South Africa. The source does not have very much but is good that it mentions the other places where anti-semitism has occurred.

  • http://www.mtsu.edu/~baustin/knacht.html (accessed 5/30/03) Describes Kristallnacht and the events that led up to it. This is very good site because it gives thorough information on Kristallnacht.


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  • http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/kristallnacht/frame.htm

  • (accessed 5/30/03) Has pictures of Kristallnacht and explains the events. It is pretty good because it gives some information on the causes and what and the effects.

  • http://www.mtsu.edu/~baustin/nurmberg.html (accessed 5/30/03) Has when the Nuremburg laws were passed what they were and who was involved. It is a good source to show what the laws were about.

  • http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=anti-Semitism&r=2 (accessed 5/30/03) Definition of anti-Semitism. This is a good site because it gives a good, clear definition of what anti-Semitism is.

  • http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/econord.htm (accessed 5/30/03)

    Lists the restrictions placed on Jews. It shows what Jews had to do and how hard their life was after these restrictions making it a good source.

  • http://www.forachange.co.uk/feb97/jews.html (accessed 5/30/03)

    Story of Polish Jews in WWII and after. A good personal story from the perspective of someone who lived it

  • http://www.informationwar.org/wars%20gallery/jews-ww2.jpg (accessed 5/30/03) Picture of Jewish boy. This picture illustrates very well the terror put into these people’s lives.


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