Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy.
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Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy. Contribution to palaeofloristic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Y. Hautevelle* , R. Michels, B. Farre, F. Lannuzel, F. Malartre.

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Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy.

Contribution to palaeofloristic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

Y. Hautevelle*, R. Michels, B. Farre, F. Lannuzel, F. Malartre

* UMR G2R 7566, Université Henri Poincaré, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France

Current address : UMR 7509, Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique, Strasbourg, France


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Intro-

duction

Botanical chemotaxonomy

  • Chemical composition :

  • lignin

  • carbohydrates

  • lipids, e.g. terpenoids

Abietic acid

conifers

lupeol

angio-

sperms

Terpenoids have a chemotaxonomic value and are thus specific of certain taxa

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Intro-

duction

From bioterpenoids to geoterpenoids

transport

Diagenetic

transformations

conifers

angio-

sperms

Geoterpenoids can keep

their initial

chemotaxonomic value

Geoterpenoids or

molecular biomarkers

BIOSPHERE

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

conifers

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Sedimentary basin

angio-

sperms

sediment

bioterpenoids

GEOSPHERE

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Intro-

duction

Palaeofloristic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions

Distribution of plant

biomarkers

Palaeofloristic composition

on emerged lands

Interpretation in terms of

palaeofloristic composition

angio-

sperms

pine

pine

cypres

fern

sequoia

The distribution of plant biomarkers reflect the palaeofloristic composition during the deposition

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Relations between floras and climates

Intro-

duction

flora ↔ climate

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

temperate climate

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

desertic climate

III. Application

to Coniferales

tropical climate

IV.Perspectives

& future works

polar climate

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Intro-

duction

Chemostratigraphy of vascular plant biomarkers

temperate climate

Geological times

tropical climate

desertic climate

palaeobiodiversity

palaeoclimate

T°, humidity

palaeoflora

Plant biomarkers : Are they really interesting compared to other proxies ?

Do they really bear pertinent information ?

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

stratigraphic record

molecular facies

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Intro-

duction

Advantages of palaeochemotaxonomy

Improved approaches for palaeofloristic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions

but fossils are scarse

but spores & pollen are not easily

reliable to plant taxa

BOTANICAL PALEOCHEMOTAXONOMY(plant biomarkers)

however plant biomarkers are :

  • widespread in the sedimentary record

  • - related to plant taxa if they have a palaeochemotaxonic value

BUT, our current knowledge in paleochemotaxonomy

is weak and very lacunar

Introduction

PALAEOBOTANY

(fossil plants)

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

PALYNOLOGY

(spore & pollen)

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Aims of experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

I.01

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

plant

biomarkers

palaeofloristic and palaeoclimatic proxies

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

➜ new technique of artificial maturation of living plants(confined pyrolysis).

➜ experimental "reproduction" of the plant diagenesis & fossilisation(at the molecular scale).

III. Application

to Coniferales

➜ Aim :

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Molecular

taxonomy

Botanical

taxonomy

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Experimental and analytical procedures

Fresh plant

Sealed gold tubes

Confined

pyrolysis

Aliphatic

Aromatic

Polar

Molecular analysis

(GC-MS)

Solubilisation of

terpenoids (CH2Cl2)

Fractionation

I.02

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Development of experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Diagenetic pathway of abietanoic acids

Laflamme and Hites, 1978 ; Wakeham et al., 1980; Simoneit, 1986; Otto and Simoneit, 2001, 2002; Marchand-Genest and Carpy, 2003, etc.

I.03

Introduction

Diagenesis of bioterpenoids :

➜ progressive removal of oxygenated functions

➜reduction of double bonds

➜ saturation vs. aromatisation of 6C cycles (depending on redox conditions during diagenesis)

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Experimental diagenesis :

➜ in accordance with these transformations

➜ generate the broadest possible distribution of biomarkers (functionalised & hydrocarbon ; aromatic & saturate)

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Development of the pyrolysis procedure :

➜ well known diagenetic pathway of a bioterpenoid

➜ abietanoic acids like abietic acid

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Choice of the plant and its initial composition

Abies pinsapo(Spanish fir)

Fresh Abiespinsapo

Methylated total fraction

Diagenetic pathway of abietanoic acids

Retention time

II.01

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Fresh Abies pinsapo contains large amounts

of abietanoic acids

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Determination of the ideal pyrolysis temperature

280°C

Presence of

aromatic diterpanes

Pyrolysed Abiespinsapo

Total fraction

m/z 219, 223, 237, 239, 241

II.02

Introduction

150°C

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

200°C

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Diagenetic pathway of abietic acid

Other pyrolysis parameters :

duration: 24 h ;

pressure :700 bars.

250°C

III. Application

to Coniferales

280°C

IV.Perspectives

& future works

300°C

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Generation of saturated diterpanes

Unsaturated abietanes

not satisfying

Pyrolysed Abiespinsapo

Aliphatic fraction TIC

Pyrolysis with LiAlH4

280°C

Saturated

abietanes

280°C

presence of diterpanes

classically detected

in the geosphere

labdanes

LiAlH4

II.03

phytene

Pyrolysed Abiespinsapo

Aliphatic fraction TIC

Introduction

280°C

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Diterpane diagenesis

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Palaeochemotaxonomy of a virtual fossil Abies pinsapo

280°C

with LiAlH4

Typical molecular signature of fossil Pinaceae

280°C

Without

LiAlH4

II.04

Pyrolysed Abiespinsapo

Aliphatic fraction TIC

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Pyrolysed Abiespinsapo

Aromatic fraction TIC

280°C

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

without

LiAlH4

III. Application

to Coniferales

pyrolysedAbiespinsapo

Polar fraction TIC

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Summary of the experimental procedure

Determination/prediction of the molecular signature of the fossil counterpart of the pyrolysed plant

The reproduction of this procedure on a great number of plant taxa should considerably increase our knowledge in palaeochemotaxonomy

II.05

Aliphatic fraction

Introduction

Time :24 h, pressure :700 bar,temperature :280°C,WITH LiAlH4

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Aromatic fraction

Time :24 h, pressure :700 bar, temperature:280°C,WITHOUT LiAlH4

Polar fraction

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Time :24 h, pressure :700 bar, temperature:280°C,WITHOUT LiAlH4

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Conifers currently studied

69 species studied for

experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

III.01

Coniferal order is composed of 7 families

Araucariaceae

3 Agathis, 8Araucaria&1Wollemia

Cupressaceae

1Calocedrus,4Chamaecyparis,2Cupressus,5Juniperus,

1Microbiota,3Thuja&1Thujopsis

Pinaceae

4Abies,3Cedrus,4Larix,5Picea,4Pinus,1Pseudotsuga&1Tsuga

Podocarpaceae

4Podocarpus

Sciadopityaceae

1Sciadopitys

Taxaceae

2Taxus, 2Cephalotaxus, 1Torreya

Taxodiaceae

1Cryptomeria, 2Cunninghamia, 1Sequoiadendron,1Meta-sequoia,1Sequoia&2Taxodium

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Example of Araucariaceae (sesquiterpenoids)

farnesane

chama

zulene ?

cadalene

pentaMedi

hydroindenes

bisabolanes

cadalanes

curcumenes

Araucaria

angustifolia

III.02

Aliphatic fraction

Aromatic fraction

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

n-C14

n-C15

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Araucaria

araucana

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Araucaria

laubenfelsii

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Example of Araucariaceae (diterpenoids)

Monoaromatic

tetracyclic diterpane

Aromatic

abietanes

Monoaromatic

Labdane ?

phyllocladanes

labdanes

beyerane

(iso)pimaranes

kauranes

phyllocladanes

III.03

Aliphatic fraction

Aromatic fraction

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Araucaria

angustifolia

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Araucaria

araucana

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Araucaria

laubenfelsii

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Results on the whole Coniferale order

Araucariaceae

High abundance of tetracyclicditerpanes

Low abundance of tricyclicditerpanes &polar terpenoids

Cupressaceae

High diversity between the different genera

Cuparene, cedrane and totaranesseem specific

Systematic occurrence of ferruginol and occasional occurrenceof tetracylicditerpanes

III.04

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Results on the whole Coniferale order

Pinaceae

Systematic presence of dehydroabieticacid and dehydroabietol

Some fonctionnalisedcompouds seem to be specific for some genera

Taxodiaceae

High diversity between the different genera

Presence of ferruginol & sugiol

Occasional occurrence of tetracyclicditerpanes

III.05

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Difficulties of experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Presented data

"Iceberg's point"

many information remains

to be discovered

Many peaks ➜ "orphan" spectra

a lots of compounds have never been reported and remain to be identifed

Their future identification will supply much more palaeochemotaxonic data

IV.01

Introduction

Huge mass of data acquired on 69 species of conifers

Fresh plants

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

pyrolysed plants (with & without LiAlH4)

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Future identification of unknown biomarkers

M+ : 240 ➜C18H24

?

Loss of 5 C atoms on cycles D & E

Monoaromatic

tetracyclic diterpane

pyrolysis of pure compounds

Ellis et al. (1996)

pyrolysis of commercial essential oils

pyrolysis of commercial resins

IV.02

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Araucaria

angustifolia

Aromatic

fraction

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Perspectives of experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Enlarge on other living organisms :

- Bacteria (anoxygenic, psychrophile bacteria, cyanobacteria, etc…)

- Planktonic organisms ;

- Animals, etc…

In targeting the organisms which have a palaeoenvironmental interest

IV.03

Introduction

Enlarge on other botanical groups :

- Angiosperms ;

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

- Bryophytes, pteridophytes (as ferns)

and cycadophytes.

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

investigate the molecular composition of fossil plants from their present representatives

PALEOBOTANY

(fossil plants)

PALYNOLOGY

(spore & pollen)

Conclusions

Conclusion

Experimental Palaeochemotaxonomy ➜ pertinent and innovativeapproach

Introduction

I.Objectives

& procedure of

experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

Molecular

systematic

Botanical

systematic

II. Development

of experimental

palaeochemo

taxonomy

BOTANICAL PALAEOCHEMOTAXONOMY

(plant biomarkers)

III. Application

to Coniferales

IV.Perspectives

& future works

Conclusions


Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy

Determination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy.

Contribution to palaeofloristic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

Y. Hautevelle

R. Michels, B. Farre, F. Lannuzel, F. Malartre

Thank you for your

attention !


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