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Ada in the Avionics Industry. George Romanski. romanski@verocel.com. Overview. Evolution of the Ada Industry Personal Observations and Experiences Certification Projects Certification Guidance Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) Ada on IMA . 1980 – Ada Compiler - Germany.

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Ada in the Avionics Industry

George Romanski

romanski@verocel.com


Overview

  • Evolution of the Ada Industry

    • Personal Observations and Experiences

  • Certification Projects

  • Certification Guidance

  • Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA)

  • Ada on IMA

SigAda-2005


1980 – Ada Compiler - Germany

  • Front-End – Karlsruhe University

  • Host – Siemens (IMB 370 clone)

  • Target – Siemens process control computer

Project included:

Compiler ‘middle-end’

Back-end

Code generator

Run-time system

SigAda-2005


1980 – Ada Compiler - Germany

  • Front-End – Karlsruhe University

  • Host – Siemens (IMB 370 clone)

  • Target – Siemens process control computer

Project included:

Compiler ‘middle-end’

Back-end

Code generator

Run-time system

Did not meet expectations !

But learned from the experience !

SigAda-2005


1983 – MCHAPS Project

  • Ada Compiler and support environment

  • Well engineered design/specifications (lots of paper)

  • Spent lots of money

SigAda-2005


1983 – MCHAPS Project

  • Ada Compiler and support environment

  • Well engineered design/specifications (lots of paper)

  • Spent lots of money

Did not meet expectations !

But learned from the experience !

SigAda-2005


1984 – SD-Ada

  • Systems Designers /Systeam (Karlsruhe)

  • Host - VAX

  • Target – 68K, 1750A

Bootstrap 24 hrs on VAX 785

(Recompile the compiler)

SigAda-2005


1984 – SD-Ada

  • Systems Designers /Systeam (Karlsruhe)

  • Host - VAX

  • Target – M68K, 1750A

Bootstrap 24 hrs on VAX 785

(Recompile the compiler)

M68K moderately successful !

VAX compiler, 1750A compiler – did not meet $ expectations

SigAda-2005


1986 - XD-Ada Compiler

  • Systems Designers / DEC

  • Host - VAX

  • Target

    • M68K

    • 1750A

Commercial and Military

Avionic systems

Mostly Military and space

based systems

Front/Middle-end Vax-Ada

SigAda-2005


1986 - XD-Ada Compiler

  • Systems Designers / DEC

  • Host - VAX

  • Target

    • M68K

    • 1750A

Commercial and Military

Avionic systems

Mostly Military and space

based systems

Front/Middle-end Vax-Ada

M68K Lots of $$’

1750A compiler – moderately successful

SigAda-2005


1990 Alsys

  • Host – Many

    • PC with 4-MByte memory board

  • Targets – Many (including)

    • Intel

    • 68K

Used on BOEING 777

C-SMART

(Certifiable Small Ada Run-Time)

SigAda-2005


1990 Alsys

  • Host – Many

    • PC with 4-MByte memory board

  • Targets – Many (including)

    • Intel

    • 68K

Used on BOEING 777

C-SMART

(Certifiable Small Ada Run-Time)

COTS Certification Package

using DO-178B

SigAda-2005


1991 – 1994 Boeing 777

  • Most systems written in Ada

  • Many proprietary subsets

  • Mostly certified by users

    • (no RTS or minimal RTS)

  • C-SMART

    • Certification package was 35 pounds per 1000 LOC.

Ada – great success story !!

SigAda-2005


1998 – Ada’95 + Ravenscar

  • Aonix

    • C-SMART (Ada 95)

    • Raven

Certification package

SigAda-2005


1998 – Ada’95 + Ravenscar

  • Aonix

    • C-SMART (Ada 95)

    • Raven

Certification package

Used on several avionics projects

SigAda-2005


Verocel – 1999 – to present

  • ‘C’ based certifications

  • Ada Based certifications

  • PLM Based certifications

  • Targets

    • PIC micro-controller

    • 68K

    • Cold-Fire

    • PPC

400 bytes RAM

½ GByte RAM

(larger than Machines

for early Host compilers)

SigAda-2005


Verocel – 1999 – to present

  • ‘C’ based certifications

  • Ada Based certifications

  • PLM Based certifications

  • Targets

    • PIC micro-controller

    • 68K

    • Cold-Fire

    • PPC

400 bytes RAM

½ GByte RAM

(larger than Machines

for early Host compilers)

40% certification work done in Ada (measured by LOC)

All based on DO-178B

SigAda-2005


Certification Guidance

  • Guidance used for Software

    • DO-178B Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification

    • DO-248B Annual Report for Clarification of DO-178B

    • ARINC-653 Avionics Application Standard Interface

    • DO-xxx Integrated Modular Avionics Development Guidance and Certification Considerations (SC-200 working group)

DO-178B

IMA

SigAda-2005


Continued Evolution of DO-178B Guidance

DO-178B (1991)

DO-248B

DO-278

Issue

Papers

CAST

Papers

SC-205

Annexes

DO-178C

+

Model Based Development

Object Oriented Programming

Formal Methods

(2008?)

SigAda-2005


IMA Guidance

  • ARINC-653

    • Published in 1997

    • Supplement 1 published 2003

    • Supplement 2 ‘few months away’

  • SC-200

    • Approved by Plenary committee Aug 2005

    • Submitted for final editorial review and approval

    • To be published as DO-xxx (next available number)

SigAda-2005


Use Of IMA

  • Many new projects are based on IMA architectures.

    • Airbus 380

    • Boeing 787

    • 767 Tanker

    • C-130 AMP

    • Airbus 400M

    • X45, X47 (Unmanned aircraft)

SigAda-2005


Use Of IMA

  • Many new projects are based on IMA architectures.

    • Airbus 380

    • Boeing 787

    • 767 Tanker

    • C-130 AMP

    • Airbus 400M

    • X45, X47 (Unmanned aircraft)

All of these IMA systems based on ARINC-653

SigAda-2005


Line Replaceable Units - Databus

Effectors

Sensors

Databus

LRU-B

LRU-A

LRU-C

Most flying planes

Use this architecture

SigAda-2005


Line Replaceable Units - Switch

Effectors

Sensors

Databus

LRU-B

LRU-A

LRU-C

Switch

Switch is a high-bandwidth

Communication system

SigAda-2005


Line Replaceable Module

Effectors

Sensors

DC- Data Concentrators

DC

DC

DC

Switch

LRM

A

B

C

LRM houses

applications A,B and C

SigAda-2005


Partitioning Applications on LRM

App. 1

Ada

App. 2

C++

App. 3

C

Partition

Operating

System

APEX

APEX

APEX

POS

POS

POS

Module

Operating

System

MOS

Config.

Table

SigAda-2005


ARINC-653 Organization – on LRM

Application

Partition 2

System

Partition 2

Applications

Software

Layer

Application

Partition 1

System

Partition 1

Apex Interface

Core

Software

Layer

O/S

Kernel

System Specific

Functions

Hardware

SigAda-2005


IMA Model for an Ada application

Virtual Target

Ada Application

Virtual

Address

Space

ARTE

Health

Management

System

POS

Communication through virtual Ports only

SigAda-2005


Ada Objects Created not Declared

Ada Program

CREATE_PROCESS (Ada_Procedure, )

No Ada

Tasks

CREATE_SEMAPHORE

CREATE_EVENT

Process

Object

POS

Event

Object

Semaphore

Object

SigAda-2005


Ada Exceptions

Divide by zero

Exception Handler

ARTE

POS

Partition HM

Module HM

MOS

System HM

H/W exception handler

SigAda-2005


Ada on ARINC 653

  • ARINC 653 is a standard that abstracts the operating system services from the application

  • Ada fits in but gives up scheduling operations

  • All support libraries must be certified

Ada is Highly suitable for Avionics Applications

on ARINC-653 platforms

SigAda-2005


Where does Ada fit in?

In with a good chance!

The main objection to Ada is:

SigAda-2005


Where does Ada fit in?

In with a good chance!

The main objection to Ada is:

Lack of Ada Programmers!

SigAda-2005


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