Review Exam 3
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Review Exam 3. 1. In Pavlov ’ s experiment, the dog ’ s salivation to the bell is the:. A) unconditioned stimulus. B) unconditioned response. C) conditioned stimulus. D) conditioned response.

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Review Exam 3

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Review Exam 3

1. In Pavlov’s experiment, the dog’s salivation to the bell is the:

  • A) unconditioned stimulus.

  • B) unconditioned response.

  • C) conditioned stimulus.

  • D) conditioned response.

2. Jimmy was frightened by a barking dog. For the next few months, he was afraid of all dogs. This is an example of:

  • A) stimulus generalization.

  • B) stimulus discrimination.

  • C) unconditioned response.

  • D) unconditioned stimulus.

3. After repeatedly presenting the CS without the UCS, the CR will gradually disappear. This is called:

  • A) extinguished reaction.

  • B) extinction.

  • C) stimulus discrimination.

  • D) stimulus neutralization.

4. Once extinction has occurred, the CR may return if enough time has passed. This is an example of:

  • A) spontaneous remission.

  • B) stimulus generalization.

  • C) spontaneous recovery.

  • D) conditioned recurrence.

Which of the following would be an example of Classical Conditioning being applied to practical problems?

  • A) teaching a dog to wag its tail?

  • B) using methadone for heroine addicts

  • C) applying electric shock to depressed patients

  • D) giving alcoholics a drug to make them sick if they drink

6. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a _____ schedule.

  • A) fixed-interval

  • B) variable-interval

  • C) fixed-ratio

  • D) variable-ratio

7. In ____, a response is strengthened in order to avoid something unpleasant.

  • A) punishment

  • B) negative reinforcement

  • C) partial reinforcement

  • D) positive reinforcement

8. Even when punishment changes behavior, it has several drawbacks, including:

  • A) punishment doesn’t teach the correct response.

  • B) punishment may result in fear of the one punishing.

  • C) effects may be only temporary.

  • D) all of the above.

9. Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by _____ reinforcement.

  • A) intermittent

  • B) delayed

  • C) continuous

  • D) negative

10. If you want to teach a pigeon to eat out of your hand, you would place some bird seed closer and closer to you until it finally had to come to your hand. This is called:

  • A) intermittent reinforcement.

  • B) shaping.

  • C) partial reinforcement.

  • D) continuous reinforcement.

11. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so. This illustrates the importance of:

  • A) respondent behavior.

  • B) immediate reinforcement.

  • C) shaping.

  • D) modeling.

12. Albert Bandura contends that most human behavior:

  • A) is acquired through observational learning.

  • B) is shaped through repeated trial-and error.

  • C) is reinforced through positive conditioning.

  • D) is planned out and not accidental.

13. In Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment, he demonstrated:

  • A) aggressive children will imitate aggressive behavior.

  • B) children will imitate aggressive behavior just by observing it.

  • C) children who are non-aggressive will not imitate aggressive behavior.

  • D) children will imitate aggressive behavior is reinforced with candy.

16. After a week at college, Kim has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. She has developed a:

  • A) visual memory.

  • B) perceptual delineation.

  • C) cognitive map.

  • D) retinal disparity.

17. The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of:

  • A) shaping.

  • B) latent learning.

  • C) spontaneous recovery.

  • D) computer-assisted instruction.

18. The desire to engage in an activity for the sake of its own enjoyment involves:

  • A) spontaneous reinforcers.

  • B) spontaneous recovery.

  • C) intrinsic motivation.

  • D) latent learning.

19. It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ______ in learning.

  • A) primary reinforcement

  • B) generalization

  • C) negative reinforcers

  • D) biological predispositions

20. According to Thorndike’s Law of Effect, when responses are followed by something unpleasant:

  • A) the response is strengthened.

  • B) the unpleasant stimulus is avoided.

  • C) the response is weakened.

  • D) the CR is extinguished.

21. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:

  • A) generalization.

  • B) secondary reinforcement.

  • C) shaping.

  • D) latent learning.

22. By pushing vending machine buttons, children often learn that this action is associated with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:

  • A) latent learning.

  • B) intermittent reinforcement.

  • C) spontaneous recovery.

  • D) operant conditioning.

23. For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of _____ over _____.

  • A) shaping; modeling

  • B) reinforcement; punishment

  • C) spontaneous recovery; extinction

  • D) negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement

24: A child’s fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n):

  • A) conditioned response.

  • B) unconditioned stimulus.

  • C) conditioned stimulus.

  • D) unconditioned response.

1. Making sense of information as meaningful occurs in the process of ___ so that we may store it in memory.

  • A) construction

  • B) flashbulb

  • C) encoding

  • D) sensory memory

2. Being able to remember major events clearly because of their emotional impact is called:

  • A) flashbulb memory.

  • B) sensory memory.

  • C) photographic memory.

  • D) traumatic memory.

3. In the three-stage processing model of memory, the stages, in order of occurrence are:

  • A) flashbulb, working, long-term.

  • B) sensory, short-term, long-term.

  • C) working, short-term, long-term.

  • D) visual, short-term, long-term.

4. When you solve a math problem in your head, you have to hold the information there while you calculate. This calls into play ___ memory.

  • A) rehearsal

  • B) working

  • C) conscious

  • D) arithmetic

6. When studying information, like concepts in your textbook, you must work at it and pay attention. This is called ___ processing.

  • A) meaningful

  • B) deliberate

  • C) effortful

  • D) redundant

7. Your friend says, “I wait to study all the material the night before the test, so it is fresh in my mind.” You tell him from what you have learned:

  • A) that you agree this is the best way to prepare for a test.

  • B) he should rehearse the material as many times as he can the night before the test.

  • C) he should audio tape the material and replay it in his sleep.

  • D) that he should spread his studying across many days.

8. The “serial position effect” describes our tendency to:

  • A) remember what we had for breakfast.

  • B) remember things when they are in numerical order.

  • C) remember the first and last items of a list more successfully.

  • D) remember the first items of the list more often than the last ones.

11. Brief, visual sensory memory is like a snapshot, and only lasts for less than a second is called:

  • A) echoic memory.

  • B) iconic memory.

  • C) short-term memory.

  • D) immediate memory.

12. Our immediate, short-term memory for new material is limited in capacity to roughly ___ bits of information.

  • A) 3 plus or minus 1

  • B) 12 plus or minus 3

  • C) 20 plus or minus 4

  • D) 7 plus or minus 2

13. When we remember how to do something, but cannot consciously explain it or even recall the information when asked, ___ is involved.

  • A) episodic memory

  • B) explicit memory

  • C) implicit memory

  • D) semantic memory

14. The ____ of the brain plays a major role in the formation of new, explicit memories.

  • A) hippocampus

  • B) hypothalamus

  • C) amygdala

  • D) frontal lobes

16. Essay tests measure ___ and multiple choice tests measure ___.

  • A) long-term memory; short-term memory

  • B) recall; recognition

  • C) retrieval; clustering

  • D) semantic memory; visual memory

17. Asked quickly to spell “shop” and then asked, “What do you do when you get to a green light?”, most people answer, “stop”. This is an example of:

  • A) working retrieval.

  • B) chunking.

  • C) priming.

  • D) tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

18. The tendency to recall more sad events when a person is currently sad is an example of ___ memory.

  • A) flashbulb

  • B) iconic

  • C) melancholic

  • D) mood-congruent

19. When Jason learned the material, he was on pain killers. He could not recall it when off pain killers, but could again remember some of it the next time he was on pain killers. This is an example of:

  • A) long-term potentiation of neurons.

  • B) the spacing effect.

  • C) flashbulb memory.

  • D) state-dependent memory.

20. The best way to find information stored in memory is to use:

  • A) iconic memory.

  • B) retrieval cues.

  • C) auditory processing.

  • D) explicit memory.

23. Not being able to remember all the details of a common penny is an example of ___ failure.

  • A) state-dependent

  • B) recall

  • C) encoding

  • D) misinformation

24: When learning something new makes recall of previously learned information more difficult, this is called:

  • A) proactive interference.

  • B) the misinformation effect.

  • C) retroactive interference.

  • D) persistence.

25. Inspector Bradigan wants to call in a hypnotist to help the victim of abuse better recall repressed memories. You inform the inspector that:

  • A) he should only use a highly trained hypnotist.

  • B) recovered memories under hypnosis are unreliable.

  • C) the victim may be too emotional to remember.

  • D) he should also use a truth serum.

1. A mental grouping of objects or events is called a:

  • A) mental image.

  • B) concept.

  • C) abstract representation.

  • D) cognition.

2. When we think of a “bird” we are more likely to think of a robin than a penguin because a robin fits our:

  • A) perception.

  • B) cognition.

  • C) formal concept.

  • D) prototype.

3. When following this procedure to solve problems, you will always arrive at a correct solution.

  • A) trial-and-error

  • B) heuristic

  • C) algorithm

  • D) insight

4. Jim misplaced his keys. He knew they were in the house, so he first looked on the hook, then on the dresser, then in other places he has found them in the past. He is using the strategy of:

  • A) trial-and-error.

  • B) heuristics.

  • C) algorithm.

  • D) insight.

A team of researchers have discovered an area of the brain activated during sudden flashes of insight, it was the:

  • A) right temporal lobe.

  • B) left parietal lobe.

  • C) prefrontal cortex.

  • D) amygdala.

7. Our tendency to approach a problem a certain way, i.e., a way successful in the past, is called:

  • A) prototype.

  • B) heuristics.

  • C) mental set.

  • D) algorithm.

8. Mary was out of coffee filters. She did not think of using a paper towel, so she went without coffee. Her failure was one of:

  • A) representativeness heuristic.

  • B) algorithms.

  • C) functional fixedness.

  • D) availability heuristic.

9. Gambling is perpetuated, in part, by the ease we have of remembering the times we won. This is an example of:

  • A) false memory.

  • B) availability heuristic.

  • C) false prototypes.

  • D) concept misattribution.

10. Politicians know that labeling military action as a “pre-emptive strike” gains more support than, “invasion.” This is an example of:

  • A) lying.

  • B) framing.

  • C) false advertising.

  • D) political psychobabble.

11. The rules of a language, its ___, helps determine the meaning being communicated.

  • A) nanogram

  • B) linguistics

  • C) syntax

  • D) morpheme

12. The smallest unit of language that carries meaning is called a:

  • A) morpheme.

  • B) phoneme.

  • C) babble.

  • D) telegraphic speech.

13. By the time infants are about 10 months old,

  • A) they should be speaking full sentences.

  • B) they should be putting two words together.

  • C) their babbling is universal across all cultures.

  • D) their babbling has features of the household language.

14. The stage of speech in which a young child says things like, “go car,” and, “momma come,” is called:

  • A) one-word speech.

  • B) telegraphic speech.

  • C) babbling.

  • D) morpheme speech.

15. Chomsky believes our capacity for language is natural and quick because:

  • A) behavioral conditioning.

  • B) sequential developmental stages.

  • C) language being entirely inborn.

  • D) a language acquisition device.

16. According to Worf (1956), differences among languages cause differences in perceptions and thinking. This idea is called:

  • A) displacement hypothesis.

  • B) linguistic determinism.

  • C) perceptual change theory.

  • D) linguist shift.

19. Thinking without language:

  • A) is not possible.

  • B) can improve your performance on the basketball court.

  • C) is found only in animals.

  • D) occurs more often in cultures without language.

20. Students wanting to improve their test scores should:

  • A) should study every chance they get.

  • B) should spend 5 minutes every day imagining themselves getting an “A”.

  • C) should think more often.

  • D) spend 5 minutes every day imagining themselves studying.

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