Safety Observation Process
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Safety Observation Process. Pathway to an Injury Free Career If we can predict it: we can prevent it!. What Is a Safety Observation?. Tool to raise safety awareness in a non-threatening way Allows for directed / guided observation teams Tool to build trust Feedback loop mechanism

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Safety Observation Process

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Safety observation process

Safety Observation Process

Pathway to an

Injury Free Career

If we can predict it: we can prevent it!


What is a safety observation

What Is a Safety Observation?

  • Tool to raise safety awareness in a non-threatening way

  • Allows for directed / guided observation teams

  • Tool to build trust

  • Feedback loop mechanism

  • ↑ increase safety awareness

  • ↓ decrease anxiety or threat of reporting errors

  • Goal is to fix things quickly and effectively


Effective safety management

Effective Safety Management

Characteristics of effective safety performance:

  • Measurable.

  • Focuses on positive activities.

  • Direct impact on outcomes.

  • Opportunity for two-way feedback and positive reinforcement.

  • Opportunity for goal setting based on performance data.


Safety observation process

Observations identify job site hazards, controls,

conditions, manage exposure to risks, reduce

exposure, and thereby reduce injury.

Apply a strategic approach:

  • Anticipate and prevent active error at the job site.

  • Reduce total number of “at-risk” critical behaviors and/or conditions.

  • Identify and eliminate the related barriers/latent organizational weaknesses.

  • Change other factors to encourage safe behaviors.


Safety observation objectives

Safety Observation—Objectives

  • Provide positive reinforcement / feedback for safe behaviors observed.

  • Identify error-likely conditions for corrective actions.

  • Gather meaningful data for analysis that identifies institutional weaknesses in work management systems.

Do Work Safely


Safety observation process

Fix the Person or the System?

Is the Person Clumsy?

Or Is the Problem . . .

The Step???


Ii human performance integrated safety management

II. Human Performance & Integrated Safety Management


Safety observation process

Human Performance Improvement

Five Basic Principles

  • People are fallible, and even the best make mistakes.

  • Error-likely situations are predictable, manageable, and preventable.

  • Individual behavior is influenced by organizational processes and values.

  • People achieve high levels of performance based largely on the

  • encouragement and reinforcement received from leaders, peers,

  • and subordinates.

  • 5. Events can be avoided by understanding the reasons mistakes

  • occur and applying the lessons learned from past events.


  • Industry statistics on causes of events

    Human Error

    System Induced Error

    (organizational weakness)

    Operational Upset

    Unexpected

    Error

    Human Error

    Equipment Failures

    Industry Statistics onCauses of Events


    When things go wrong

    When Things Go Wrong

    How It Is Now…

    How It Should Be…

    Human error is the cause of accidents:

    You are highly trained

    and

    If you did as trained, you would not make mistakes

    so

    You weren’t careful enough

    so

    You should be PUNISHED!

    Human error is a symptom of trouble deeper inside a system.

    You are human

    and

    Humans make mistakes

    so

    Let’s also explore why the system allowed, or failed to accommodate your mistake

    Let’s IMPROVE THE SYSTEM!


    When things go wrong1

    When Things Go Wrong


    Where we are coming from

    Where we are coming from:

    • I keep entering this in the system but something needs to be done. The majority of the traffic going down and up Pecos drive is speeding. and a lot of the traffic is Gov. vehicles. Speed humps need to be put in place. Someone is going to get hit.

    • There should be Speed humps installed on Pecos Road because of the excess speeding going on while people are walking to there buildings in the morning and also during lunch. Gov. vehicles and personal vehicles driving very fast up and down the road. NEED SPEED HUMPS!!!!

    • As I was walking from the guard gate into PF-1, I observed a craft trucking speeding from the south to the north in a 10 MPH posted area. I was about to step into the crosswalk when they saw me and stopped suddenly. I motioned to the driver to slow down. They just laughed.


    Vehicle operator observation 1 0 pre trip inspection

    Where we are headed:

    Vehicle Operator Observation1.0 Pre Trip Inspection

    • Observed multiple cars in TA-55 parking lot and discovered that several of their tires were either under inflated or over inflated. with weather conditions becoming a factor proper tier pressure is important to check before driving.

    • Frost on windshield caused potential visibility problem. On discussing the issue it was decided to be late for a meeting and take the necessary time to completely clean the frost from the window before travelling.

    • During inspection of my motorcycle prior to leaving home for work, I found the brake light to be non-operational. The tail light was working, but not the brake light. I installed a spare bulb and that fixed the problem.

    • Observed LANL semi driver leaving yard pulling trailer, he did not do a pull test on trailer to make sure it was secure to tractor, stopped driver helped with pull test.


    Vehicle operator observation 2 0 stopping

    Vehicle Operator Observation 2.0 Stopping

    • Driver initially stopped with about 1/2 car length distance between our vehicle and the vehicle in front of us, but increased this to a full car length after discussion.

    • Driver did a rolling stop at the stop sign. Pointed out the "California" stop in a nice way and driver agreed that full stop would have been safer.

    • Driver in government vehicle did not fully stop at stop sign when leaving parking lot. I noted who the driver was (someone I knew) and spoke/teased them about it later. They agreed that they should have fully stopped.

    • Driver often yields at stop signs rather than stops. A discussion was held concerning the behavior and the drive admitted to fault and stated that through awareness, the drive will be comply to stop signs and making a complete stop. In addition, a discussion was held concerning crashes that could be prevented if the drivers stopped completely as required by law.

    Vehicle Operator Observation 3.0 Parking

    • Several cars were noted in the parking lot as having parked outside of designated spaces. I spoke with one driver, who didn't really care that they might get a ticket. They did not want to have to walk from TA-50 parking lot stating that it was more dangerous to walk and possibly slip on the ice than park in an unmarked spot.

    • The driver did forget the turn the wheels while parking on a hill. This behavior was identified and will be corrected for future vehicle operations.


    Vehicle operator observation 4 0 backing

    Vehicle Operator Observation4.0 Backing

    • Airports could be designed so that airplanes would never have to back up.

    • Driver and Observer do not understand this question. Is this asking if the passenger backed up the vehicle before the driver did?

    • Driver failed to check rear of vehicle for any possible hazards before backing up. Spotter was needed and used after being notified.

    • The driver was not aware that it is a good driving practice to sound the horn prior to, and if possible, during the backing up process. He concurred that this signals pedestrians behind the vehicle to clear the area and committed to begin using this practice.

    • The driver did not sound the horn while backing up. This was a safety concern that both the observer and the observee learned by performing the ATOMICS observation.

    • Driver and Observer do not understand this question. Is this asking if the driver backs up the vehicle by turning the wheels 90 degrees and moving the vehicle side ways?


    Safety observation process

    SafetyObserver Roles and Responsibilities

    Observer rules for observing performance:

    Judge the behavior of the worker being observed with the

    same criteria you would use for yourself.

    We judge ourselves with external factors.

    We judge others with internal factors.


    Fundamental tenets of safety observations

    Fundamental Tenets of Safety Observations

    • Focuses on behaviors and conditions

    • No name, no blame process

    • Process is for people, it involves everybody

    • Gives positive reinforcement for safe behaviors.

    • Pro-active; uses leading indicators

    • Statistically driven.

    • Unlike TRC/DART provides process numbers workers control.


    Safety observation process

    ATOMICS Safety Process

    4 Essential Elements

    Identify the critical behaviors and conditions

    Collect data

    Provide feedback

    Use data to reduce/remove latent organizational weaknesses.


    Safety observation process

    To: process improvement

    From: crisis reaction

    Focus Shifts

    Safety Stand downs

    Re-read procedures

    Safety Meetings

    Retraining

    Stop

    Think

    Act

    Review


    Safety observation process

    To: preventing accidents

    From: tracking accidents

    Focus Shifts

    Fix the problem

    before it injures the

    worker.

    Identification of error

    likely situations.

    Strengthen defenses.

    Total Recordable (TRC)

    Days Away Restricted Time (DART)

    First Aid cases


    Safety observation process

    To: upstream factors

    From: downstream factors

    Focus Shifts

    Leading indicators

    Process improvement

    Accident prevention

    Near miss reporting

    Develop defense in depth

    Error tolerance

    Just work environment

    Lagging indicators

    Non diagnostic

    Crisis Reactions

    Stand downs

    TRC/DART

    Lessons learned


    Safety observation process

    Observations manage exposure to risks,

    reduce exposure, and reduce injury.

    Apply a strategic approach:

    • Anticipate and prevent active error at the job site.

    • Reduce total number of “at-risk” critical behaviors.

    • Identify and eliminate the related barriers/latent organizational weaknesses.

    • Change other factors to encourage safe behaviors.


    Safety observation process

    How do we change behavior?

    Traditional methods to improve safety performance:

    • Progressive Discipline

    • Administrative Policies

    • Visions, Goals, Plans

    • Core Value Statements

    • Safety Training

    • New Safety Initiatives

    • Committees

    • Focus Groups

    • Additional Defense Layers

    • Contests & Awards

    • Safety meetings

    • Motivational speakers


    Safety observation process

    How do we change behavior?

    Traditional safety response:

    Injury: employee finished cleaning toilet inside stall turned tight and hit head on coat hanger…

    Response: retrain employee on being more aware of surroundings and potential hazards.

    Injury: walking to truck, slipped on ice

    Response: employee reminded to check walking area before proceeding to vehicle for slippery conditions

    Injury: employee walking around vehicle-slipped on ice and almost fell

    Response: retrain employee on slips, trips, and falls safety.

    Injury: employee missed dip in sidewalk, slipped and fell

    Response: be conscious of where you are walking

    Injury: employee sneezed acute internal pain in lower left rib cage area

    Response: encourage employee to stabilize body alignment before sneezing

    Injury: disposing metal piece, cut edge caught employees glove cutting through and cutting finger

    Response: need to describe to workers conditions that make up “line of fire” and self control of natural reflexes.


    Safety observation process

    • If we can predict it: we can prevent it!


    Safety observation process

    Observations identify job site hazards, controls, conditions, manage exposure to risks, reduce exposure, and thereby reduce injury.


    Are you from osha

    Are you from OSHA?


    At risk behavior is usually a trigger not a cause

    At-risk behavior is usually a trigger,NOT a Cause

    Habit

    Poor

    Communication

    Imperfect

    Memories

    Time

    Pressure

    Poor Ergonomic

    Job Design

    Peer Pressure

    No Supervision

    Inadequate

    Training

    Lack of

    Accountability

    Confusing

    Procedures


    Safety observation process

    Understanding Behavior

    With

    ABC Analysis

    Activator

    Police Car Flashing Red Lights

    Radiation Work Practices

    Phone rings

    Behavior

    Slow down/speed up

    Turbo-Frisking

    Answer phone

    Consequence

    Citation/nothing

    Contamination Y/N

    Talk with caller


    Safety observation process

    Influencing Long-term Behavior

    Consequences control behavior!


    Safety observation process

    Timing:Sooner

    Later

    Consistency:Certain

    Uncertain

    Significance:Positive

    Negative

    Factors that Affect the Power of Consequences

    The most powerful consequences are:

    Soon

    Certain

    Positive


    Safety observation process

    Feedback

    Feedback is a powerful way to influence behavior

    • Feedback is a consequence.

    • To be effective it must be:

      • soon,

      • certain,

      • and positive


    Organizational responsibilities

    Organizational Responsibilities

    Reducing Errors (observations)

    It is naïve (foolish) to think that positive reinforcement is the single mechanism for safety observations success.

    Managing Defenses (data analysis)

    The organizational change initiative, identification of system, facility, and equipment issues identified are at least as likely to be primary improvement mechanisms as positive reinforcement.


    Safety observation process

    Interaction Technique

    • Before the observation:

      • Let people know you are observing them

      • Answer any questions about the process

      • Mention that there will be feedback/discussion after

        After the observation:

      • Observer reinforces safe behaviors, and, if needed, discusses observed at-risk actions and options to avoid future occurrence,


    Safety observation process

    Giving Feedback

    • Discuss “at-risks and explore barriers to working “safely”

    • Separate discussion of “at-risk” behaviors

      from positive feedback.

    • Ask open-ended questions

      (Ex: What’s the worst accident that can happen? How could you be hurt doing this task. Why are you doing it this way?)

    • Ask for suggestions/ideas, draw out the corrective action that

      may be required from the person.

    • Record comments. Seek a personal commitment from that the individual will carry out the action and thank them for participating.


    Safety observation process

    Giving Feedback

    • The goal of the behavioral observation is to improve (influence) the performance (behavior) of the workers observed.

    • It is critical for workers to understand the types of behaviors and conditions that either increase exposure (at-risk behaviors) or reduce the risk of exposure (identified safe behaviors).


    Safety observation process

    A Safety Observation

    • Is a sampling procedure

    • Is the cornerstone of the safety process

    • Is systematic and standardized

    • Samples behaviors and conditions, not individuals


    Safety observation process

    A Safety Observation

    Shares expertise:

    From January 2010 to May 2010 the Vehicle Operator Observation sheet was utilized by the ASM-MM group 24 times and by all other organizations 314 times.

    From January 2010 to May 2010 the Lifting Observation sheet was utilized by ASM-MM 62 times and by all other organizations 268 times.


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