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Chapter 16. Roosevelt and his Platform in 1933. “I hope the United States will keep out of this war. I believe that it will. And I give you assurances that every effort of our government will be directed toward that end.”

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Roosevelt and his platform in 1933
Roosevelt and his Platform in 1933

  • “I hope the United States will keep out of this war. I believe that it will. And I give you assurances that every effort of our government will be directed toward that end.”

  • Industrialism, private profit and competition esp. competition for raw material .


Alternatives to war
Alternatives to war

  • Plot to assassinate of Hitler by Ludwig Beck and Franz Halder

  • Concessions to Japan under the leadership of FumimiroKonoyo

    These two options could have averted the war but it is “counterfactual” history


Differences between roosevelt and wilson
Differences between Roosevelt and Wilson

  • Unlike Wilson who called on his citizens to be impartial both in thought and action, Roosevelt was openly in favor of the Allied Powers.

  • Cash and Carry policy: In theory both sides could buy from the US but since Britain ruled the waves the benefit of the bill was for Britain and France. Unneutrality of the bill.

  • Declaration of Panama: Safety belt around the Americas 300 to 1000 miles wide: Combatant were warned not to engage in any naval activity.


Hitler in europe
Hitler in Europe

  • In April 1940 Hitler occupied Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium and half of France and within the German troops were at the English Channel.


Roosevelt s reaction
Roosevelt’s Reaction

  • In August he exchanged 50 mothballed destroyers with Britain in return for 99 year leases on naval and air bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, West Indies and British Guaina

  • Authorization to spend 4m$for a two ocean-navy ships

  • Added two venerable Republicans to his cabinet to give a flavor of national unity.


  • Set up a Joint Board Defense with Canada.

  • Conclusion of an agreement with the Latin American nations in Havana, affirming that all of them would stand as one to protect the integrity of the political independence of an American State.

  • Passage of the First Selective Service Act allowing for the immediate draft of 800000 men


  • Lend-Lease Act: the chief executive was authorized to sell, transfer, exchange, lease or lend any war material to any government that the president deems vital to the defense of the United States.

  • In May 1940, President ordered 50 oil tankers transferred to British use, and after a freighter had been sunk by a German U-Boat the president declared a state of unlimited national emergency.

  • Roosevelt: Our Bunker Hill of tomorrow will be several thousands miles from Boston internationalist agenda of Roosevelt.


Pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor transfer, exchange, lease or lend any war material to any government that the president deems vital to the defense of the United States.

  • Contrary to the common belief that Japan was the instigator of the attack it was the United States which led Japan to attack Pearl Harbor.

  • General George Marshall: In spite of the risk involved, however, in letting the Japanese fire the first shot, we realized that in order to have the full support of the American people it was desirable to make sure that the Japanese be the ones to do this so that there should remain no doubt in anybody’s mind as who were the aggressors.


Key sentence by arthur sulzberger
Key Sentence by Arthur Sulzberger transfer, exchange, lease or lend any war material to any government that the president deems vital to the defense of the United States.

  • We did not go to war because we were attacked at Pearl Harbor, I hold rather that we were attacked at Pearl Harbor because we had gone to war.

  • In march 1940, while the American people were being assured by their president that he was trying to stay out of war, he had already decided that entry was inevitable and was proceeding accordingly.


  • Yesterday, December 7 transfer, exchange, lease or lend any war material to any government that the president deems vital to the defense of the United States. th 1941 a day which will live in infamy, United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by the naval and air forced of the empire of Japan.


War and presidency
War and Presidency transfer, exchange, lease or lend any war material to any government that the president deems vital to the defense of the United States.

  • Because of War, FDR extended the power of the president to unprecedented extents. Roosevelt accrued to himself the right to determine what his people wanted or were entitled to without the actual consent of the governed.

  • Meeting with Churchill in Newfoundland without informing the Congress.


War and the us economy
War and the US economy transfer, exchange, lease or lend any war material to any government that the president deems vital to the defense of the United States.


Aftermath of the war and different interpretation of the international order
Aftermath of the War and different interpretation of the International order

  • Churchill: the aim was to restore the old order and the old colonial empire, with as little modification as possible. Installing monarchies in Greece, Belgium and Italy.

  • Containment of the Soviet Union




Differences towards communism
Differences towards Communism the English and the French to a softer imperialism in which the United States was dominant.

  • Britain and Churchill: Communism was a threat that had to be contained

  • FDR: The Russians had proved that they could be reasonable and far-seeing . The US president believed that they could live with them and get along with them peacefully .

  • Later the Soviets came to be looked upon as a threat.


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