Layers of the Earth. Crust. Mantle. Outer Core. Inner Core. Alfred Wegener’s theory of Continental Drift. Wegener believed that all the earth’s continents were once joined together in a supercontinent call Pangaea.
Plate- A section of the earth’s crust.
Plate Tectonics- The theory that the earth’s plates interact to produce mountains, trenches, earthquakes, and volcanoes. This happens through convection currents and plate movement.
Subduction Zone- An arte of the earth’s crust where one plate slide beneath another, creating volcanoes and earthquakes.
Topography-The natural features of the land’s surface.
Landscape- An area’s landforms together with its cover of vegetation, water, ice, and rock.
Geology- Refers to the types of rocks and the history of those rocks.
Meteorology- The science of weather.
Climate- How we describe the patterns of weather conditions over the long term.
Jet Stream-A high and fast wind that flows east across North America along the Canada/U.S. Border.
These currents in the mantle cause magma to sometimes break through the crust as lava and volcanic ash, creating new land forms.
The currents also cause plates of the earth to separate and collide at their edges. Where they separate trenches are formed and where they collide mountains are formed.
Latitude- Cold in the northern hemisphere and warm near the equator.
Air Masses & Winds- Air masses over water or land take on the characteristics of that area(cold/wet or Hot/dry) They travel from west to east across Canada.
Ocean Currents- Move large amounts of heat and cold around the earth
Clouds & Precipitation- When water vapour in clouds cool below the temperature when condensation occurs rain, ice and snow may form
Altitude- The temperature changes as altitude increases.
Bodies of Water- Being near water can bring changes in temperature and precipitation due to the temperature of the water.
Mountain Barriers- The Coast Mountains of B.C. receive high amounts or rain and snow due to the west winds from the Pacific, they also keep the Fraser Plateau relatively dry.
Dry Climates(B Zones)- Cool category of dry climates with an average temperature of less than 18 degrees C, located in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan
Warm, moist Climates(C Zones)- Warm humid summers and mild winters located on the western coast of B.C.
Cool, moist Climates(D Zones)- Covers 70% of Canada
Polar(E Zones)- Located in the far north and covers 25% of Canada, is a cold dry tundra zone