Objectives Overview

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Objectives Overview. Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11. 2. See Page 417for Detailed Objectives. Objectives Overview. Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11. 3. See Page 417for Detailed Objectives. System Development. Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11.

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2. Objectives Overview Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 2 See Page 417 for Detailed Objectives

3. Objectives Overview Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 3 See Page 417 for Detailed Objectives

4. System Development Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 4 Page 418

5. System Development Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 5 Page 418 Figure 11-1

6. System Development System development should follow three general guidelines: Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 6 Page 419

7. System Development System development should involve representatives from each department in which the proposed system will be used Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 7 Page 419 Figure 11-2

8. System Development Project management is the process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during system development To plan and schedule a project efficiently, the project leader identifies: Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 8 Page 420

9. System Development Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 9 Pages 420 - 421 Figure 11-3a

10. System Development Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 10 Pages 420 - 421 Figure 11-3b

11. System Development Feasibility is a measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the organization Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 11 Page 421

12. System Development Documentation is the collection and summarization of data and information and includes: Reports Diagrams Programs Other information generated during system development Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 12 Page 422

13. System Development During system development, members of the project team gather data and information using several techniques Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 13 Pages 422 - 423 Figure 11-4

14. System Development Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 14 Page 423

15. System Development Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 15 Page 424 Figure 11-5

16. System Development The planning phase for a project begins when the steering committee receives a project request Four major activities are performed: Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 16 Page 425

17. System Development The analysis phase consists of two major activities: Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 17 Pages 425 - 427

18. System Development Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 18 Page 426 Figure 11-6

19. System Development The system proposal assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution The steering committee discusses the system proposal and decides which alternative to pursue Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 19 Pages 427 - 428

20. System Development The design phase consists of two major activities Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 20 Page 428

21. System Development To acquire the necessary hardware and software: Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 21 Pages 428 - 430

22. System Development The next step is to develop detailed design specifications Sometimes called a physical design Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 22 Pages 430 - 431

23. System Development Systems analysts typically develop two types of designs for each input and output Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 23 Pages 430 - 431 Figures 11-8 – 11-9

24. System Development A prototype (proof of concept) is a working model of the proposed system Prototypes have inadequate or missing documentation Users tend to embrace the prototype as a final system Should not eliminate or replace activities Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 24 Page 431

25. System Development Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools are designed to support one or more activities of system development Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 25 Page 432 Figure 11-10

26. System Development The purpose of the implementation phase is to construct the new or modified system and then deliver it Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 26 Page 432

27. System Development Various tests should be performed on the new system Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 27 Page 433

28. System Development Training involves showing users exactly how they will use the new hardware and software in the system One-on-one sessions Classroom-style lectures Web-based training Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 28 Page 433 Figure 11-11

29. System Development One or more of four conversion strategies can be used to change from the old system to the new system Direct conversion Parallel conversion Phased conversion Pilot conversion Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 29 Pages 433 - 434

30. System Development The purpose of the operation, support, and security phase is to provide ongoing assistance for an information system and its users after the system is implemented Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 30 Page 434

31. System Development A computer security plan should do the following: Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 31 Page 434

32. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools A computer program is a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks Created by a programmer using a programming language Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 32 Pages 435 - 436 Figure 11-12

33. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Machine language is the first generation of programming languages Only language the computer directly recognizes Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 33 Page 436 Figure 11-13

34. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Assembly language is the second generation of programming languages Programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes A source program contains the code to be converted to machine language Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 34 Page 437 Figure 11-14

35. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools In a procedural language, the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it Third-generation language (3GL) Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 35 Page 438

36. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 36 Pages 438 – 439 Figures 11-15 – 11-16

37. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools The C programming language is used to write many of today’s programs Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 37 Page 439 Figure 11-17

38. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language) is designed for business applications, but easy to read because of the English-like statements Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 38 Page 440 Figure 11-18

39. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools An object-oriented programming (OOP) language allows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects Other advantages include: Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 39 Page 440

40. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems The Just-in-time (JIT) compiler to convert the bytecode into machine-dependent code Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 40 Pages 440 - 441 Figure 11-19

41. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools The Microsoft .NET Framework allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as computers and mobile devices Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 41 Page 441

42. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools C++ is an extension of the C programming language Additional features for working with objects, classes, events, and other object-oriented concepts C# is based on C++ and was developed by Microsoft F# combines the benefits of an object-oriented language with the benefits of a functional language Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 42 Page 441

43. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 43 Pages 441 - 443

44. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 44 Pages 442 Figure 11-20

45. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 45 Page 443

46. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools PowerBuilder is a powerful program development RAD tool Best suited for Web-based, .NET, and large-scale enterprise object-oriented applications Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 46 Page 443

47. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools A 4GL (fourth-generation language) is a nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database One popular 4GL is SQL Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 47 Page 443 Figure 11-21

48. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Classic programming languages include: Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 48 Page 444 Figure 11-22

49. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools An application generator is a program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality Often bundled as part of a DBMS Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 49 Pages 444 - 445 Figure 11-23

50. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools A macro is a series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task You usually create the macro in one of two ways: Record the macro with a macro recorder Write the macro Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 50 Page 445

51. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools HTML is a special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web XHTML is a markup language that allows Web sites to be displayed more easily on mobile devices Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 51 Page 446 Figure 11-24

52. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools XML allows Web developers to create customized tags and use predefined tags to display content appropriately on various devices WML is a subset of XML and is used to design pages for microbrowsers Two applications of XML are RSS 2.0 and ATOM Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 52 Pages 446 - 447

53. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Web browsers can execute short programs to add interactive elements to Web pages To send and receive information between your computer and a Web server, these programs use the CGI (common gateway interface) Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 53 Page 447

54. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Programmers write scripts, applets, servlets, or ActiveX controls using a variety of languages Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 54 Pages 447 - 448

55. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 55 Page 448

56. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Web 2.0 allows Web sites to provide a means for users to: Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 56 Page 448

57. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Most Web 2.0 sites use APIs An API enables programmers to interact with an environment such as a Web site or operating system Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 57 Page 448 Figure 11-26

58. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Web page authoring software can create sophisticated Web pages that include images, video, audio, animation, and other effects Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 58 Page 449

59. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Multimedia authoring software allows programmers to combine text, graphics, animation, audio, and video in an interactive presentation Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 59 Page 449

60. Programming Languages and Program Development Tools Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 60 Page 449 Figure 11-27

61. Program Development Cycle Program development consists of a series of steps programmers use to build computer programs Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 61 Pages 450 - 451 Figure 11-28

62. Program Development Cycle The sequence control structure shows one or more actions following each other in order Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 62 Page 452 Figure 11-29

63. Program Development Cycle The selection control structure tells the program which action to take, based on a certain condition If-then-else Case Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 63 Page 452 Figure 11-30

64. Program Development Cycle Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 64 Page 453 Figure 11-31

65. Program Development Cycle The repetition control structure enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 65 Page 453 Figures 11-32 – 11-33

66. Video: Electronic Arts Going Mobile Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 66

67. Summary Discovering Computers Fundamentals, 2011 Edition Chapter 11 67 Page 454

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