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Social Studies. Essential UNIT Question: How did the ancient world contribute to the development of civilization?. Social Studies Standards. Case study of an early people of the Middle East (Sumer, Egypt, or Mesopotamia): 3.1 a, 3.1 c, 3.1 d. DO-NOW:. Update Table of Contents;.

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Social Studies

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Social studies

Social Studies

Essential UNIT Question: How did the ancient world contribute to the development of civilization?

Social studies standards

Social Studies Standards

  • Case study of an early people of the Middle East (Sumer, Egypt, or Mesopotamia): 3.1 a, 3.1 c, 3.1 d

Do now


  • Update Table of Contents;

Focus question 22

Focus Question # 22:

  • What were the contributions of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt? (Part 3)

Egyptians leave their mark

Egyptians Leave Their Mark:

  • The Egyptian pyramids were great monuments of stone, built at the direction of the pharaoh;

  • Pyramids prepared the pharaoh’s passage to the afterlife;

  • The Great pyramid of Pharaoh Khufu (KOO-Foo), built in 2,600 BCE, brought honor to many Egyptians;

  • The pyramid walls contained inscriptions of the achievements of the pharaoh;

  • There was also a dark side to the legacy of the pyramids: Many people were enslaved and forced to work as laborers on the pyramid’s construction.

Khufu s monument of life death

Khufu’s Monument of Life & Death

A written legacy

A Written Legacy

  • Early Egyptians scribes documented official court records (schedules, contracts, funeral rites, medical and religious writings, etc.) and left behind a body of literature by using a system of writing called hieroglyphs or sacred carvings: “hiero” means holy (Greek) and glyph (Greek) means to carve or shape by hand;

  • Scribes practiced hieroglyphic writing on sheets of papyrus, which is a reed-like plant that grew in the Delta. It is the source of the word “paper.”

Making papyrus

Making Papyrus



  • Jean Chompollion, a Frenchman, was the first Western scholar to learn how to interpret/read Egyptian hieroglyphics, by cracking the code of the Rosetta Stone;

  • Through the Rosetta Stone, Chompollion (Shahm-pohl-YON), learned about the Egyptian economy.

  • Economics is the study of how one country uses its resources and coverts them into goods and services, which creates wealth for its people.

  • For ex. Papyrus (resource) Paper (goods) Scribes (services).

Rosetta stone

Rosetta Stone

Top portion was written in Egyptian hieroglyphics.

The middle portion was written in modern “demotic” Egyptian.

The bottom portion was written in Ancient Greek.

Jean Champollion (top left) used Greek and demotic text as the basis through which he learned to read Egyptian hieroglyphics.

Preparations for afterlife

Preparations for Afterlife:

Sarcophagus canopic jars

Sarcophagus & Canopic Jars

Priests placed vital organs in jars

Sarcophagus = Coffin

Tomb raiders

Tomb Raiders:

Stepped pyramid

Stepped Pyramid:

Menes the pharaoh of unity

Menes “The Pharaoh of Unity”

The double crown of egypt

The Double Crown of Egypt

Crown of Upper Egypt (White); Crown of Lower Egypt (Red)

United Crown of Egypt

Lower and upper egypt

Lower and Upper Egypt:

Silt deposits rich soil

Silt deposits = Rich soil

Silt scooped out of the Nile

Silt helps nourish soil

Egyptian irrigation

Egyptian Irrigation

The Shadoof


The nilometer

The Nilometer

Egyptian cloth

Egyptian Cloth

Egyptian weavers

Flax was used for clothing

The flooding of the nile river

The Flooding of the Nile River

Egyptian transportation

Egyptian Transportation

Egyptian domestication

Egyptian Domestication

The nile and its delta

The Nile and Its Delta

The delta

The Delta



Homework 31

Homework # 31:

  • See HW tab (Website)

Today s middle east

Today’s Middle East


Today i learned

Today I Learned . . .

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