computational analysis of stall and separation control in axial centrifugal compressors
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Computational Analysis of Stall and Separation Control in Axial & Centrifugal Compressors. Alex Stein Saeid Niazi Lakshmi N. Sankar School of Aerospace Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology

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computational analysis of stall and separation control in axial centrifugal compressors

Computational Analysis of Stall and Separation Control in Axial & Centrifugal Compressors

Alex Stein Saeid Niazi Lakshmi N. Sankar

School of Aerospace Engineering

Georgia Institute of Technology

Supported by the U.S. Army Research Office Under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) on Intelligent Turbine Engines

outline
Outline
  • Centrifugal compressor work
  • Axial compressor work
  • Research objectives and motivation
  • Recap of last presentation
motivation and objectives
Motivation and Objectives
  • Use CFD to explore and understand stall and surge
  • Develop control strategies for centrifugal and axial compressors
  • Apply CFD to industrial turbomachinery (high pressure ratios, multi-stage)
  • Investigate both rotating stall & surge separately
recap of last presentation
Recap of Last Presentation
  • Detailed study and simulation of NASA Low Speed Centrifugal Compressor
  • Simulation and Validation of Air Bleeding & Blowing/Injection as a Means to Control and Stabilize Compressors Near Surge Line
  • Useful Operating Range of Compressor was Extended to 60% Below Design Conditions
centrifugal compressor allison engine impeller
Centrifugal CompressorAllison Engine Impeller

431 mm

  • 15 main & 15 splitter blades
  • Design Conditions:

22000 RPM

Mass Flow = 4.54 kg/s

Tot. Pressure Ratio = 4.13

Adiab. Efficiency = 87%

Tip speed = 492 m/s

Inlet Mrel= 0.4 (hub)-0.9 (shroud)

  • Designed for use in advanced regenerative gas turbine engine for truck/bus and power generation
centrifugal compressor grid
Centrifugal Compressor - Grid

diffuser

III

II

I

splitter

blade

main

blades

Computational Grid101x49x25 (blocks I & II) 33x49x81 (block III)

400000 grid points

validation results for 4 1 centrifugal compressor
Validation Results for 4:1 Centrifugal Compressor

Circumferentially Averaged Static Pressure Along Shroud (Design Condition)

results for 4 1 centrifugal compressor performance characteristic map
Results for 4:1 Centrifugal CompressorPerformance Characteristic Map

Choked Flow

Design Operation

velocity vectors at midpassages operation near choked flow
Velocity Vectors at MidpassagesOperation near Choked Flow

A

B

III

II

I

p/pinf

Pressure

Passage

A-A

Suction

Passage

B-B

A

B

Impeller flow well behaved

Diffuser flow separated

velocity vectors at midpassage operation near design condition
Velocity Vectors at MidpassageOperation near Design Condition

B

III

II

I

Mrel

B

Suction

Passage

B-B

  • Possible sources for diffuser stall:
  • Adverse effect of downstream BC
  • Unknown performance of Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence model in separated flows
  • Compressor geometry (e.g. diffuser) not exactly modeled
axial compressor rotor67
Axial CompressorRotor67

514 mm

  • 22 Full Blades
  • Inlet Tip Diameter 0.514 m
  • Exit Tip Diameter 0.485 m
  • Tip Clearance 0.61 mm
  • 22 Full Blades
  • Design Conditions:
  • Mass Flow Rate 33.25 kg/sec
  • Rotational Speed 16043 RPM
  • Rotor Tip Speed 429 m/sec
  • Inlet Tip Relative Mach Number 1.38
  • Total Pressure Ratio 1.63
  • Adiabatic Efficiency 0.93
simulation setup axial compressor rotor 67
SIMULATION SETUPAxial Compressor Rotor-67

PS

I

II

w

SS

Computational Grid 86x35x15 (blocks I & II)

90300 grid points

results for axial rotor 67 performance map
Results for Axial Rotor-67Performance Map

Design

  • Experimentalchoke mass flow rate: 34.96 kg/s
  • CFD choke mass flow rate: 34.76 kg/s
velocity profile at pressure side design colored by pressure
Velocity Profile at Pressure Side (Design)(Colored by Pressure)

Tip Pressure Side

  • No reversed flow in clearance gap
velocity profile at pressure side off design
Velocity Profile at Pressure Side(Off-Design)

Tip Pressure Side

  • reversed flow was seen in the clearance gap
  • Tip leakage produces vorticity
conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • CFD code has been extended to centrifugal and axial compressors with high pressure ratio.
  • CFD Performance maps and pressure data show good agreement with experiments.
  • For centrifugal compressor diffuser separation was observed in the simulations; not in agreement with experiments.
  • For the axial compressor, tip leakage vortex is stronger under off-design conditions compared to design conditions. This may cause the compressor to go into an unstable state.
future work
FUTURE WORK

Bleed Air

Controller

Pressure

Sensors

Air

Inject

  • Continue to Work on Control Issues, e.g. Unsteady Injection, Recirculation.
  • Improved geometry to validate flow field.
  • Multi-flow passage to simulate rotating stall.
  • Investigate influence of shock interaction on boundary layer.
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