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1. Existing processes and business environment. Business environment U.S census on the Construction Industry Contract type. Existing processes Existing process Current Used Technologies Process mode. Business Environment. 1997 Economic Census ( US census Bureau ). Business Environment.

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1 existing processes and business environment
1. Existing processes and business environment

  • Business environment

    • U.S census on the Construction Industry

    • Contract type.

  • Existing processes

    • Existing process

    • Current Used Technologies

    • Process mode


Business environment
Business Environment

  • 1997 Economic Census (US census Bureau)


Business environment1
Business Environment

The construction industry is very unique because…

  • It has many characteristics common to both manufacturing and service industries.

  • It is fragmented and sometimes divisive.

  • It is very custom-oriented.

  • It is incentive-oriented.

    As a result…

  • The construction industry highly depends on personnel rather than technologies.

  • Technologies play the role to support making decisions during industry’s whole phases.


  • Business environment2
    Business Environment

    • Construction Management has emerged as a strong alternative to traditional construction contracting procedures.

    • Construction manager represent owner’s profits in the current construction industry that is getting more complicated and specialized.

    • Construction management treats the project planning, design, and construction phases as integrated tasks.

    • So, construction manager’s great role is to understand each specialized areas and to make diverse information into optimized information while reducing resources and making more benefits.


    Business environment3
    Business Environment

    • Example : Market share of CM type contracts.

    Directly or indirectly, construction management plays a big role in 81% of projects.

    Texas K-12 and public higher education projects

    (source: Effects of State Legislation on Contracting Methods of Public Schools and Universities)


    Business environment4
    Business Environment

    • Relationships of project teams at CM at Risk

    Contractual:

    Functional:

    Owner

    Owner

    Designer

    Designer

    Construction

    Manager

    Construction

    Manager

    Independent

    Contractors

    Independent

    Contractors

    (Source: Professional Construction Management)


    Existing processes
    Existing Processes

    Planning Process

    Design Process

    Construction Process

    Evaluation of Project Construction Performance

    Constructability, Procurability, Commissioning, Operability, Maintainability, Health, Sustainability Analyses during Planning and Design

    Preliminary Studies

    Plans and Specifications

    Plans and Specifications

    Operations & Maintenance Process

    Evaluation of Facility Operation Performance

    • Existing Working Processes


    Existing processes1
    Existing Processes

    Operation Phase

    Construction Phase

    Planning Phase

    Design Phase

    Operations Team

    Construction Team

    Design Team

    Owner Team

    (Users/Operators)

    (Construction Managers /General

    Contractors/Subcontractors)

    (Engineers/Architects)

    • Assessment & Objectives Setting

    • Preliminary, planning & Funding

    • Project Definition Package

    • Conceptual / Schematic Design

    • Design Development

    • Contract Documents

    • Bid or Negotiate, & Award

    • Construction Planning

    • Execution

    • Start-up

    • Operation/Management / Maintenance

    • End of Service Life Decision

    • Current Used Technologies

    Technologies

    For Drafting & Rendering

    AutoCAD, ArchiCAD

    3D-Studio, FormZ

    ……

    For Planning

    Primavera Project Planning, MS Project

    For Estimating

    Dodge, MS Excel

    For Contracting

    Primavera Expedition


    Existing processes2
    Existing Processes

    • Project Documentation Problems

    (Source: CIFE Summer Program)


    Existing processes3
    Existing Processes

    • Current Process-Issues / Problems

    (Source: CIFE Summer Program)


    Existing processes4
    Existing Processes

    • Current Technologies and Processes’ Problems

      • Lack of understanding

        • Danger not to reflect owner’s intend.

        • Inefficient work due to misunderstanding about projects.

      • Not integrated data between each applications

        • Rework to interpret.

        • Problems caused by misunderstanding different areas’ works.


    2. Available and suitable information technologies

    • Conditions of new information technologies

    • Available and suitable technologies

      • Process model

      • Advantages

    • Assessment of the technologies

      • Benefit

      • Obstacle


    Conditions of new alternative technologies
    Conditions of new alternative technologies

    • They can be easily understood without special training.

       Owner needs to know what’s going on.

    • They are also easily understood by computer.

       The information has to be understood by both people and computer.

    • They must integrate each area’s tasks.

       We need the tool that can reduce meaningless works like counting numbers or copying data.


    Available and suitable information technologies
    Available and suitable information technologies

    • 4D CAD System

      • 4D CAD system is for integrating the information within the design and construction phases.

      • 4D CAD is now been developing to

        • manage and minimize risk throughout all stages of a construction project

        • effectively communicate the design, schedule, and other project data

        • rapidly explore design and construction alternatives

          (By Martin Fischer, Kathleen McKinney Liston)


    Available and suitable information technologies1
    Available and suitable information technologies

    • Applications based on 4D CAD

      • The prototype of 4D CAD developed by 4D CAD research team of Stanford University.

      • ProVis developed by VIRCON

      • Revit developed by AutoDesk

    • Information networking - VERA


    Available and suitable information technologies2
    Available and suitable information technologies

    .VFD

    .wrl

    file

    • Process Model of 4D-CAD Models

    Prototype developed to import VRML files and schedule content and provide basic 4D functionality in an on-line environment

    Start with

    Ended with:

    .pm

    .P3

    file

    Primavera

    VRML 4D

    -Applet

    VRML 4D

    -Appli.

    Egg-

    VRML

    translator

    Multigen

    .EGG

    AutoCAD

    dwg files

    AutoCAD

    dxf

    Cave

    Alias

    Wavefront

    Internal translator was updated for input into Java/4D application

    Application was written to import VFD format into CAVE to generate relationships between 3D components and activities

    Hierarchical 3D file format

    Commercial tool

    Prototype 4D tools

    (Source: CIFE Summer Program)


    Available and suitable information technologies3
    Available and suitable information technologies

    • System Architecture of 4D-CAD (Pro Vis)

    Information Structure

    (Uniclass)

    AutoCAD

    MS Project

    RDBMS

    (SQL)

    ODBC

    VBA

    VBA

    Spreadsheets

    Costing Models

    4D Simulator

    (ProVis)

    VBA

    Virtual Reality

    VBA: Visual Basic for Applications

    ODBC: Open Database Connectivity

    RDBMS: Relational Database Management System

    User Interface

    VBA: Visual Basic for Applications

    (Source: VIRCON)

    VBA: Visual Basic for Applications


    Available and suitable information technologies4
    Available and suitable information technologies

    • Advantages of 4D-CAD

      • To reduce time and cost from design to construction phases.

      • To help communications and understanding between each teams.

      • To improve the productivities and to reduce meaningless works.

        As a result…

      • Owners can expect to save the cost and to get higher value.

      • Each teams can expect to earn more money by improving their productivities.


    Assessment of the technologies
    Assessment of the Technologies

    • Benefits for owners

      • To save the cost and time

      • Better quality of a final product

      • Better understanding about the project

    • Benefits for design teams

      • To reduce planning time and cost

      • To communicate with each teams easily

      • To prevent errors and mistakes

      • To reduce rework


    Assessment of the technologies1
    Assessment of the Technologies

    • Benefits for construction manager teams

      • To reduce the time and cost

      • To build database easily

      • To increase productivity

      • To reduce wasted materials

      • To expect constructability


    Screenshot of in vi zn one
    Screenshot of InVIznOne

    4D model of The Helsinki University of Technology




    3 a framework target plan
    3. A framework target plan

    • The characters of the cases which adopted 4D-CAD

    • The cases implemented by 4D-CAD

    • A long term IT adoption goals




    The characters of the cases which adopted 4d cad2
    The characters of the cases which adopted 4D-CAD

    • Post-Construction Analysis

    (Source: Martin Fischer, CIFE)


    The characters of the cases which adopted 4d cad3
    The characters of the cases which adopted 4D-CAD

    • Based on the cases, 4D-CAD makes more values from the projects on following conditions.

      The projects have…

      • Many stakeholders and players.

      • Complicate functions.

      • Large scales.

        and…

      • Need much more information.

      • Adopt new technologies.


    The cases implemented by 4d cad
    The cases implemented by 4D-CAD

    • The project of the mine facilities in Chile (1)

      • Case study description

        • A huge new copper concentrator facility to be built some 10 kilometers from the existing facilities

        • It required

          • A 9.6 kilometer overland conveyor

          • An 164-kilometer pipeline to carry copper concentrate

          • Living and recreation facilities for the approximately 7,500 workers on site

          • The covered building to hold some 400,000 metric tons of ore


    The cases implemented by 4d cad1
    The cases implemented by 4D-CAD

    • The project of the mine facilities in Chile (2)

      • Case Description (2)

        • It also required

          • A system of conveyor belt hoppers and chutes the rock and deliver it to an 11.6-meter-in-diameter, 26,000-HP semi-autogenous grinding mill, three 18,000-HP ball mills, and a set of 110 flotation cells.


    The cases implemented by 4d cad2
    The cases implemented by 4D-CAD

    • The project of the mine facilities in Chile (3)

    The Model of the Case Study Project


    The cases implemented by 4d cad3
    The cases implemented by 4D-CAD

    • The project of the mine facilities in Chile (4)

      • Benefits

        • Reduction of 10% in cost

        • Reduction in schedule, from 18 to 16 months

        • Improved design reflected in a reduction in errors during construction

        • Reductions in uncertainty and risk reflected in 90% of fulfillment of the construction schedule

    (Source: 4D-PS: Putting IT new work process into effect)


    The cases implemented by 4d cad4
    The cases implemented by 4D-CAD

    • The Bay Street Project Case, Emeryville, CA (1)

      • Activities

        • Start was 2D data and schedule with more than 200 activities for a office complex more than 1,000,000 SF.

        • 252 hours of InVizOne 3D modeling services.

        • 200 hours of InVizOne 4D modeling services.

      • Benefits

        • Discovered opportunity to save $3 million in reduced cost for unexcavated courtyards

        • Discovered opportunities to save $5 million in reduced cost overall


    The cases implemented by 4d cad5
    The cases implemented by 4D-CAD

    • The Bay Street Project Case, Emeryville, CA (2)

    The Models of the Case Study Project


    The cases implemented by 4d cad6
    The cases implemented by 4D-CAD

    • As a result of the smooth communication and clear understanding between each player…

    $2,000,000

    Value of “Avoidable” Change

    $1,800,000

    $1,600,000

    $1,400,000

    $1,200,000

    $1,000,000

    $800,000

    $600,000

    $400,000

    $200,000

    $0

    $0

    $500

    $1,000

    $1,500

    $2,000

    $2,500

    $3,000

    $3,500

    $4,000

    $4,500

    $5,000

    Total Unplanned Change by Individual Facilities ($000)

    (Source: Building Better by Building Virtually First)


    A long term it adoption goal
    A long term IT adoption goal

    Operation

    Construction

    Schematic

    Design

    Programming

    Design Develop/

    Construction Document

    • The impacts of 4D-CAD (1)

    The Sequent Phases of the Project


    A long term it adoption goal1
    A long term IT adoption goal

    Subcontractor

    Subcontractor

    Subcontractor

    Subcontractor

    Construction Manager

    Owner

    4D-CAD Model

    &

    Libraries

    Designer

    Contracting

    Flow of Information

    • The impacts of 4D-CAD (2)


    4 assess the expected costs of achieving the plan
    4. Assess the expected costs of achieving the plan

    • The major expected costs at the industry aspect

      • Collaboration between the players in the industry

      • Data exchange

    • The minor expected costs at the firm aspect

      • The investment on equipments

      • The internal investment on the infrastructure

    • Potential risks

      • The implementation of adopting a new technology


    The major expected costs at the industry aspect
    The major expected costs at the industry aspect

    • Collaboration between each firms

      • The hesitance to open own information

        • E.g. drawings of a new high-tech elevator

      • The avoidance the rework due to feedback

        • E.g. reworks to change finished plans due to the problems of other teams

      • The responsibility problems

        • E.g. whose responsibility about the costs due to the changing plans


    The major expected costs at the industry aspect1
    The major expected costs at the industry aspect

    • The necessity to adjust the existing contract conditions

      • As the concept of the construction is changing, the contract conditions have to be modified.


    The major expected costs at the industry aspect2
    The major expected costs at the industry aspect

    • Data exchange

      • The standardization problem

      • Data supporting system

        • Internal supporting system

          • e.g. AutoCAD’s libraries, Adobe Photoshop’s plug-in applications’ concept

        • External supporting system

          • Web Hub

          • ASP solutions


    The minor expected costs at the firm aspect
    The minor expected costs at the firm aspect

    • The investment on equipments

      • New hardware and software

      • Employee’s training

    • The internal investment on the infrastructure

      • Organizational restructure

      • Supporting system for new solutions

      • The enough infrastructure to maximize the benefits of 4D-CAD


    Potential risks
    Potential risks

    • The whole implementation of 4D-CAD

      • The lag time problem

      • The resistance of peoples to the new technology

      • The hidden costs


    5 analysis of the readiness of the cpm sector
    5. Analysis of the readiness of the CPM sector

    • The currently readiness of the implementation

      • The current commercial applications

      • The current rate of the automation

    • The impacts of the 4D-CAD

      • The impacts in a short term

      • The impacts in a long term


    The currently readiness of the implementation
    The currently readiness of the implementation

    • The current commercial applications

      • Each sub-sectors have own applications

      • The familiarness to the computer based works

      • The fast rate of networking development

      • The lack of linkage between each sub-setors

    • The current rate of the automation

      • The most segments are already automated or being automated.

      • The lack of linkage between planning and manufacturing


    The impacts of the 4d cad
    The impacts of the 4D-CAD

    • The impacts in a short term

      • The limited implementation due to not fully integrated data

      • A lot of modification manually due to lack of accurate logic to replace decision makings

    • The impacts in a long term

      • The fully integration through planners, constructers and manufacturers

      • To provide better quality controls

      • To maximize the value of projects


    6 a detailed plan for the next incremental step
    6. A detailed plan for the next incremental step

    • The further IT adoption’s goals of 4D-CAD

      • Plan

      • Design

      • Procurement

      • Finance

      • Construction


    The further it adoption s goals of 4d cad
    The further IT adoption’s goals of 4D-CAD

    • Plan

      • The value analysis of the project

      • The examination of the project executions

    • Design

      • To provide whole information include product codes, specifications and etc

    • Procurement

      • To integrate local dealers who provide construction materials

      • To order materials as the needs of the construction lead time


    The further it adoption s goals of 4d cad1
    The further IT adoption’s goals of 4D-CAD

    • Finance

      • To reflect constructor’s finance status include loan cost, procurement cost and etc

    • Construction

      • To improve quality controls

      • To enhance construction productivity

        • E.g. Mobile computing on construction site, quality control by image processing


    References
    References

    • US census Bureau (http://www.census.gov/epcd/www/97EC23.HTM)

    • Donald S. Barrie and Boyd C. Paulson, Professional Construction Management - 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1992

    • K. Everette Sylvester, Effects of State Legislation on Contracting Methods of Public Schools and Universities, Forum on Construction Project Delivery for Texas Public Work, January 31, 2001

    • Construction Management Associations of America (http://www.cmaanet.org )

    • 4D CAD Research (http://www.stanford.edu/group/4D/index.shtml)

    • CIFE Summer Program (http://www.stanford.edu/group/CIFE )

    • 3D/4D Workshops (http://www.stanford.edu/group/4D/4d-workshop-main.htm )

    • Construction Research Agenda Workshop ( http://www/ce/berkeley.edy/~tommelein/CEMworkshop.htm )


    References1
    References

    • VIRCON ( http://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/vircon/ )

    • K. Everette Sylvester, Effects of State Legislation on Contracting Methods of Public Schools and Universities, Forum on Construction Project Delivery for Texas Public Work, January 31, 2001

    • Robert A. Rodgers, A 4D-CAD implementation Utilizing JSPACE Schedule Simulator, Virginia Tech

    • Martin Fischer, 4D CAD: Learning from your virtual mistakes, Stanford University

    • Mark J. Clayton, Paul Teicholz, Martin Fischer, & John Kunz, Virtual components consisting of form, function and behavior, Automation in Construction 8, 1999, pp. 351-367.

    • Gijsbertus T. Luiten, Frits P. Tolman and Martin A. Fischer, Project-modeling in AEC to integrate design and construction, Computers in Industry 35, 1998, pp. 13-29.


    References2
    References

    • Paul Teicholz, Vision of Future Practice, White paper on AEC Practice and Research Issues for the Future.

    • Peter Barrett, Construction management pull for 4D CAD, University of Salford.

    • Leonardo Rischmoller, 4D-PS: Putting an IT new work process into effect, Bechtel Group, Inc., June 12, 2002

    • Martin Fischer, Building better by building virtually first, Stanford University


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