Improving drying of wood harvested in 2040
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IMPROVING DRYING OF WOOD HARVESTED IN 2040. Nawshad Haque. Email: [email protected] Personal webpage: http://www.geocities.com/nhaque.geo. Outline. Why & how drying wood? Why drying model? How to simulate & optimise? Some results. Why drying wood important?.

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IMPROVING DRYING OF WOOD HARVESTED IN 2040

Nawshad Haque

Email: [email protected]

Personal webpage: http://www.geocities.com/nhaque.geo


Outline

  • Why & how drying wood?

  • Why drying model?

  • How to simulate & optimise?

  • Some results


Why drying wood important?

  • Reduce movement & decay in service

  • Better properties

  • Less cost to transport

  • Meet drying & export standard

  • Energy hungry process


Air-drying site


Solar kiln designs


Solar kiln designs

Solar kiln at Boral Timber’s Herons Creek site, NSW, AUSTRALIA

Recent design of solar kiln by Solar Dryers Australia, Bellingen, NSW


Industrial kilns

  • Manipulate temperature, humidity & airflow


HT drying Radiata

  • 40 mm board, 8 m/s, 2 h, 2.4 m wide stack


Dry product

  • Structural

  • Appearance/furniture


Typical drying example: Hardwood


Optimise drying

  • Drying Time = f (DB, WB, Vel, Thick)

  • $/m3 cost = f (DT, $Kiln, $Operation)

  • Quality = f (drying stress, uniform final MC)

  • Find minimum $/m3 for a given set of conditions with acceptable quality


Optimised schedule


Procedure (Radiata)

  • Harvesting age: 30 years

  • Log diameter: 65 cm

  • Board: 100mm x 50mm

  • Board initial MC: 162%

  • Final target MC: 6%

  • High Temp: 120/70°C, at 7 m/s


Procedure (Radiata..)

  • Tree age: 26, 35 years

  • Sap EW MC: 180 to 200%

  • LW Density: 520 to 420 kg/m3

  • Permeability increase or decrease: ×10 to base case;

  • Shrinkage: ±10%, high & low


Some results (MC)


Effect of permeability


Effect of shrinkage


2D Single-board model

  • 100x50 mm board, ring number- 18 & 24, sap early & late wood

  • High Temp 140/90°C, at 8 m/s


Procedure (Blackbutt)

  • Eucalyptus pilularis

  • Board thickness: 43 mm

  • Initial MC: 44%; Final MC: 18%

  • Basecase reference diffusion coefficient: 1.145×10-5 m2/s;

  • Solar kiln sched (max<50°C)

  • Case 1 diffusion: +30%


Effect of diffusion (Euc)


Effect of diffusion (Euc)


Conclusions

  • Effect of parameters assessed:

  • Age, sapwood initial MC, density - small

  • Permeability - high impact

  • Shrinkage & Diffusion coefficient - significant below FSP


Future challenges

  • Validated models for Hardwood & Softwood

  • Reliable objective function necessary

  • Find optimum process for particular wood type (including variability)


Application

  • Benchmarking

  • What-if scenario analysis for future wood resources

  • Sensitivity analysis for expensive or cheap:

  • Kiln

  • Energy

  • Operation costs


CDK Hardware simulation


CSIRO Continuous Dryer

Green

timber

Dry

timber

Courtesy: Richard Northway


Future tech

  • Superheated steam drying

  • Continuous Drying Kiln

  • In-kiln MC sensor development (MKS), integrated compact systems

  • Energy & emission

  • Solar drying, vacuum drying for some species

  • Microwave based drying systems


DRYSPEC


Web: www.ensisjv.com

Thank You

Questions?

Email: [email protected]

Personal website: www.geocities.com/nhaque.geo


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