Power and politics
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POWER AND POLITICS. POWER. THE PERCEIVED ABILITY TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR, ATTITUDES, AND OUTCOMES. POWER. Resides NOT in the individual but in the relationship of the person to her environment Expressed by other’s behavior in response to your exercise of power.

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POWER AND POLITICS

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Power and politics

POWER AND POLITICS


Power

POWER

  • THE PERCEIVED ABILITY TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR, ATTITUDES, AND OUTCOMES


Power1

POWER

  • Resides NOT in the individual but in the relationship of the person to her environment

  • Expressed by other’s behavior in response to your exercise of power


Power and politics

Moderators

Choice of

Influence

Strategy

Power of

Other Party

Interpersonal

Power

Reward

Punishment

Expertise

Referent

Influence

Over

Others

Power

Organizational

Power

Legitimate

Resources

Interdependence


Interpersonal power

InterpersonalPOWER

  • Reward power

  • Punishment power

  • Expert

  • Referent


Interpersonal power1

Interpersonal POWER

Reward Power

Extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people.


Interpersonal power reward

Currencies

Money

Praise

Promotion

Work Shifts

Training

Responses

Exchanges

Harder Work

Praise for supervisor

Loyalty

Interpersonal POWERReward


Power and politics

InterpersonalPOWERPunishment

  • Extent to which a manager can threaten punishment or deny desired rewards


Power and politics

Currencies

Fines

Docking Pay

Rejection of self or ideas

Sanctions

Pressure

Responses

Generates Fear

Sabotage

Revenge

Interpersonal POWERPunishment


Power and politics

Must be Applied Contingently -- Based On Behavior

Interpersonal POWERRewards & Coercion


Interpersonal power expert

Interpersonal POWERExpert

  • Extent to which a manager possesses knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person does not have but needs


Interpersonal power expert1

Currencies

Holding/ Withholding of Information

Consultation

Responses

Unquestioned Obedience

Reluctant compliance

Challenging

Interpersonal POWERExpert


Interpersonal power referent

Interpersonal POWERReferent

  • Extent to which a manager possesses personality that captures attention, hearts and imaginations of people


Interpersonal power referent1

Currencies

Charisma

Ingratiation

Friendliness

Inspirational Appeal

Responses

Unquestioned Obedience

Modeling

Interpersonal POWERReferent


Organizational power

OrganizationalPower

  • Legitimate

  • Knowledge

  • Task Interdependence

  • Resources Control


Organizational power legitimate

Organizational POWERLegitimate

  • Extent to which a manager can or is perceived to have a “right of command” to control behavior of others.


Organizational power legitimate1

Currencies

Ordering

Personal Support/Backing

Organizationally Sanctioned Rewards/ Punishment

Responses

Unquestioned Obedience

Reluctant compliance

Challenging

Organizational POWERLegitimate


Acceptance of authority

Acceptance of Authority

There are strong tendencies among individuals to follow the instructions of the boss. Direct defiance within organizational settings is quite rare.

If the tendency to follow instructions is great and defiance is rare, then why do so many organizations appear to drift into apparent chaos?


Zone of indifference

Zone of Indifference

A zone of indifference is the range of authoritative requests to which a subordinate is willing to respond without subjecting the directives to critical evaluation or judgment. Directives falling within the zone are obeyed.


Acceptance of authority1

Acceptance of Authority

“consent of the governed”

The subordinate can and must:

  • Understand the directive;

  • Feel mentally and physically capable of carrying out the directive;

  • Perceive directive is not inconsistent with the purpose of the organization;

  • Perceive directive is not inconsistent with his or her personal interests.


Indicators a manager s legitimate power

INDICATORS: A MANAGER'SLEGITIMATE POWER

  • Intercedes favorably on behalf of employee

  • Gets items on (and off) the agenda

  • Gets fast access to top decision makers

  • Maintains frequent contact with top decision makers

  • Gets early information about decisions

  • Eliminates road blocks or bottlenecks for subordinates


Organizational power task interdependence

Organizational POWERTask Interdependence

Occurs When Two or More Employees Must Depend On Each Other to Complete Assigned Tasks


Organizational power resource interdependence

Organizational POWERResource Interdependence

The firm’s or manager’s need for resources that are controlled by others


Reasons for interdependence power

Reasons For Interdependence Power

  • Needed resources become more scarce

  • Outsiders have more control over needed resources

  • Fewer substitutes for a particular type of resource controlled by a limited number of outsiders


Common organizational currencies

Common OrganizationalCurrencies


Organizational currencies traded in exchange process

Resources

Assistance

Cooperation

Information

Advancement

Recognition

Network/Contacts

Personal Support/Backing

Organizational CurrenciesTraded in Exchange Process


Common influence tactics

Common Influence Tactics


Common influence strategies

Common Influence Strategies

Reason

Using facts and data to support a logical argument


Common influence strategies1

Common Influence Strategies

Friendliness Using flattery, goodwill, and favorable impressions


Common influence strategies2

Common Influence Strategies

Ingratiation

Use of friendship for a specific purpose


Common influence strategies3

Common Influence Strategies

Coalition Using relationships with other people for support


Common influence strategies4

Common Influence Strategies :

Bargaining Using the exchange of benefits as a basis for negotiation


Common influence strategies5

Common Influence Strategies

Assertiveness Using a direct and forceful personal approach.


Common influence strategies6

Common Influence Strategies

Higher AuthorityGaining higher level support for one’s requests.


Common influence strategies7

Common Influence Strategies

Ingratiation

Attempts to create a a favorable mood before making a request


Common influence strategies8

Common Influence Strategies

Sanctions Using organizationally derived punishments.


Common influence strategies9

Common Influence Strategies

Rewards

Using organizationally

derived rewards

as well as

personal

rewards


Common influence strategies10

Common Influence Strategies

Pressure

Uses time, information,

and resource control


Common influence strategies11

Common Influence Strategies

Consultation

Uses involvement to

co-opt others into

going along with a specific plan


Common influence strategies12

Common Influence Strategies

Rational Persuasion

Useslogical arguments and factual evidence


Common influence strategies13

Common Influence Strategies

Inspirational

Appeal

Appeal to values,ideals or aspirations to arouse enthusiasm


Common influence strategies14

Common Influence Strategies

Exchange

Offer an exchange of favors, share of benefits or promise to reciprocate at later time.


Organizational politics

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS


Organizational politics1

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS

The use of nonsanctioned influence tactics to promote self interests.


Positive aspects of politics in negotiations

Positive Aspects OfPOLITICS in Negotiations

  • Overcome personnel inadequacies, coping with change, and substituting for formal authority.

  • Circumvents inadequacies and gets the job done.

  • Facilitates adaptation to changes in the environment and technology of an organization.


Positive aspects of politics in negotiations1

Positive Aspects OfPOLITICS in Negotiations

  • Quicker than restructuring

  • With Power breakdowns, political actions can be used to prevent a loss of influence.

  • Maintains task continuity when formal authority has failed


Self protection against politics in negotiations

Self Protection AgainstPOLITICS in Negotiations

  • Avoidance

  • Redirection

  • Buffering

  • Defending Your Turf

  • Championing


Avoidance

Avoidance

  • Used when employee can not risk being wrong or where actions may yield a sanction.

  • Most common reaction is to “work to the rules.”


Redirection

Redirection

  • “Passing the buck” is a common method employees and managers use.

  • Trick is to define a task so it becomes someone else’s formal responsibility.


Power and politics

Buffering

  • Rigorous documentation to rewrite history.

  • If a program or project is successful, the manager claims to have been an early supporter.

  • If a program fails, the manager claims to be the one who expressed serious reservations in the first place.


Champions

Champions

  • Identifying a powerful champion who wishes to promote the project helps circumvent organizational politics

  • May use as his or her “silver bullet” to also promote themselves and their legitimacy


Defending turf

Defending Turf

  • Organizations are collections of competing interests that are held by various departments and groups.

  • Expanding Influence may encroach on activities of other groups.

  • Managers may attempt to expand the jobs their groups perform.


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