POWER AND POLITICS. POWER. THE PERCEIVED ABILITY TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR, ATTITUDES, AND OUTCOMES. POWER. Resides NOT in the individual but in the relationship of the person to her environment Expressed by other’s behavior in response to your exercise of power.
Extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people.
Praise for supervisor
Rejection of self or ideas
Interpersonal POWERRewards & Coercion
Holding/ Withholding of Information
Organizationally Sanctioned Rewards/ Punishment
There are strong tendencies among individuals to follow the instructions of the boss. Direct defiance within organizational settings is quite rare.
If the tendency to follow instructions is great and defiance is rare, then why do so many organizations appear to drift into apparent chaos?
A zone of indifference is the range of authoritative requests to which a subordinate is willing to respond without subjecting the directives to critical evaluation or judgment. Directives falling within the zone are obeyed.
“consent of the governed”
The subordinate can and must:
Occurs When Two or More Employees Must Depend On Each Other to Complete Assigned Tasks
The firm’s or manager’s need for resources that are controlled by others
Personal Support/BackingOrganizational CurrenciesTraded in Exchange Process
Using facts and data to support a logical argument
Friendliness Using flattery, goodwill, and favorable impressions
Use of friendship for a specific purpose
Coalition Using relationships with other people for support
Bargaining Using the exchange of benefits as a basis for negotiation
Assertiveness Using a direct and forceful personal approach.
Higher AuthorityGaining higher level support for one’s requests.
Attempts to create a a favorable mood before making a request
Sanctions Using organizationally derived punishments.
as well as
Uses time, information,
and resource control
Uses involvement to
co-opt others into
going along with a specific plan
Useslogical arguments and factual evidence
Appeal to values,ideals or aspirations to arouse enthusiasm
Offer an exchange of favors, share of benefits or promise to reciprocate at later time.
The use of nonsanctioned influence tactics to promote self interests.