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Charles I. How a King managed to turn two nations against him. How Charles lost England by ticking off parliament & everyone else. Dismal relations with parliament 3 bitter and fractious affairs at the start of his rule

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Charles I

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Charles i

Charles I

How a King managed to turn two nations against him.


How charles lost england by ticking off parliament everyone else

How Charles lost England by ticking off parliament & everyone else

  • Dismal relations with parliament

    • 3 bitter and fractious affairs at the start of his rule

    • Parliament demanded that he rule with a council of advisor, not just his daddy’s BFF (Buckingham)

    • Dismisses parliament and resolved to rule without it.


How charles lost england by ticking off parliament everyone else1

How Charles lost England by ticking off parliament & everyone else

  • Needs lots and lots of money to continue his lavish life and fight exterior enemies.

    • Taxes, the usual way fails

      • Parliament only agrees to raise them, if Charles would respect its wishes – Charles would go back on his word.

    • Forced loans*

    • Ship money*

    • Tunnage and poundage*

    • Billeted* soldiers with homeowners

    • Sold titles of nobility

      • *Find the explanations for these terms


How charles lost england by ticking off parliament everyone else2

How Charles lost England by ticking off parliament & everyone else

  • Response to the King’s attempt to rule and raise money with out parliament

  • What the King did and caused

    • Court of Star Chamber

    • Loss of Free Speech – page 32

    • Puritan exodus to New England


What is the big deal court of star chamber

What is the big deal? Court of Star Chamber

  • The power of the Court of Star Chamber under King Charles I, was synonymous with misuse and abuse of power by the King and his circle. Using the court to examine cases of sedition, the court could be used to suppress opposition to royal policies. It came to be used to try nobles too powerful to be brought to trial in the lower court.

  • King Charles I used the Court of Star Chamber as Parliamentary substitute during the eleven years of Personal Rule, when he ruled without a Parliament. He made extensive use of the Court of Star Chamber to prosecute dissenters, including the Puritans.

  • In the Star Chamber the council could inflict any punishment short of death, and frequently sentenced objects of its wrath to the pillory, to whipping and to the cutting off of ears. ... With each embarrassment to arbitrary power the Star Chamber became emboldened to undertake further usurpation. ... The Star Chamber finally summoned juries before it for verdicts disagreeable to the government, and fined and imprisoned them. It spread terrorism among those who were called to do constitutional acts. It imposed ruinous fines. It became the chief defense of Charles against assaults upon those usurpations which cost him his life. . .

    • Edgar Lee Masters

  • Discuss with a partner the implications and ramifications of the Court of Star Chamber. Can you think of a modern day version?


  • Help the money s run out

    Help, the money’s run out!

    • After 11 years of ruling without Parliament

      • King called parliament to get more money, as his illegal methods were not working

      • They would not agree unless he signed Petition of Right, 1628

      • Read the selection – page 135/136


    Petition of right

    Petition of Right

    • The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing.

    • The Petition was largely shaped by the common lawyers in the House of Commons.

    • The Petition is retrospective in nature: it claims to merely reconfirm ancient liberties, rather than establish new rights.

    • In reality, however, the Petition significantly expanded the recognized rights of Englishmen.

    • In enacting the Petition, Parliament sought redress on the following points

      • Taxation without Parliament's consent

      • Forced loans

      • Arbitrary arrest

      • Imprisonment contrary to Magna Carta

      • Arbitrary interference with property rights

      • Lack of enforcement of habeas corpus

      • Forced billeting of troops

      • Imposition of martial law

      • Exemption of officials from due process

    • It was passed by Parliament in May 1628, and given the royal assent by Charles I in June of that year.

      • In practice, however, Charles failed to abide by the limitations of the Petition, choosing to use Royal Prerogative.


    Charles gets a little help from his friends

    Charles gets a little help from his friends

    • First Buckingham advised the king poorly. He ended up being assassinated.

    • Then the king turned to Archbishop Laud and Lord Strafford who only dug the King in deeper

      • Strafford: found ways of squeezing more money out of the British population

      • Laud: a strong supporter of the “papist” rituals and decoration in the Anglican Church

        • Result: Puritans trashing churches in revolt

      • Laud: suggests imposing and enforcing the Anglican prayer book upon the Presbyterian Scots

        • Result: civil disorder and riots in Scotland. Scottish nobles take control of government.


    The war before the war scots call up their inner william wallace

    The War before the War:Scots call up their inner William Wallace

    • To quell the resistance in Scotland, Charles called parliament to raise money for war– he found little support and sympathy towards the Scots.

    • He dissolved parliament (the Short Parliament, 1640) and marched towards Scotland.

      • He hoped that anti-Scottish sentiment would bring out the nobles on his side.

        • However, many did not come to ride with him. In addition, there were mutinies and many officers were lynched.

    • The army failed to beat the Scots at Newburn in 1640. First victory for the Scots in decades.


    Long parliament 13 years of sitting

    Long Parliament:13 years of sitting

    • No Money = No Army = no fight against Scotland

      • In fact, some parliamentarians liaised with Scottish Parliamentarians! AND there were rebellions in Ireland that needed squashing! Can’t let the Catholics get away with anything!

    • Charles crumbled and called Parliament (the long parliament)

    • Parliament was still not supportive of the King

      • Demanded that Laud and Strafford be turned over (they were executed)

      • Charles was forced to sign a bill “the Grand Remonstrance” that required him to

        • Call parliament regularly

        • Not impose illegal and invented taxes

        • Pass the control of the army and navy to parliament

        • Uphold the “privilege of Parliament”

          • The bill passed by 11 votes.

    • Parliament was becoming divided between those who supported the King (Royalists) and those who were in favor of Parliament (Parliamentary Party), led by John Pym (creator of the Grand Remonstrance)


    Recount nah i ll just bring in the army

    RECOUNT!! Nah, I’ll just bring in the army

    Because the bill was so narrowly passed, Charles thought that if he arrested the leaders of the bill, parliament would be on his side. Clearly there were still some people in parliament who supported him.

    With 500 soldiers, Charles stormed parliament to arrest the leading MPs.

    However, his scheme hadn’t been so secretive, and the 5 MP had escaped.

    This move was in clear violation of the “Privilege of Parliament” so no arrests were made, only new enemies in Parliament.


    You bring your army we ll bring in ours

    You bring your army, we’ll bring in ours

    In retaliation to Charles’s smooth move, open rebellions sprung up in the streets

    Thousands of citizens armed themselves and surrounded Parliament. The leading MPs returned to their seats to the cheers of their peers.

    Charles, fled London, went North to Nottingham, where he would have support.

    The queen, Henrietta Maria, did her job… she brought the royal jewels with her, to help pay for her husband’s army.

    In Nottingham, Charles raised his standard, effectively declaring war on Parliament.


    Review in his fight to remain king what actions and reactions happened

    Review: In his fight to remain king, what actions and reactions happened.

    • Economically:

      • Taxes, ship money, tunnage and poundage, forced loans, selling titles; for extravagant living and bad wars.

    • Socially:

      • Force Anglican bible on the Scots, continue “papist” church ceremonies to anger Puritans, violation of free speech and writs of habeus corpus, billeting soldiers.

    • Politically

      • Divine right, not calling parliament and ruling without it, not ruling by council, Court of Star Council and misuing Royal Prerogative, abusing ‘Parliamentary Privilege’, lying to Parliament, descending the army on parliament.


    Triangle of revolution

    Triangle of revolution

    Political

    Parliament only called when king wants

    Divine right of Kings

    Puritans are more influential in the houses

    King spending large amounts of money on frivolous things

    James doesn’t call parliament for 7 years

    • Divine right, not calling parliament and ruling without it, not ruling by council, Court of Star Council and misuing Royal Prerogative, abusing ‘Parliamentary Privilege’, lying to Parliament, descending the army on parliament.

    Hates on for puritans, who happen to be the majority of parliament

    • Force Anglican bible on the Scots, continue “papist” church ceremonies to anger Puritans, violation of free speech and writs of habeus corpus, billeting soldiers.

    ENGLAND

    Taxes, ship money, tunnage and poundage, forced loans, selling titles; for extravagant living and bad wars

    Economic

    Inflation of money with all the gold, silver, trading

    Social

    Witch hunt fever, unity against them

    Trade and entrepreneurs changing face of social hierarchy and country landscape.


    Result to our triangle of revolution

    Result to our Triangle of Revolution

    ROYALIST

    PARLIAMENTARY PARTY

    CAVALIERS

    ROUNDHEADS

    New Model Army

    ENGLAND

    AT WAR


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