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HAS 3260. Leadership Dr. Burton. "Learning is not compulsory... neither is survival." - W. Edwards Deming "It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory." - W. Edward Deming. Leading -- to Inspire Effort. Planning Ahead What is leadership? How do leaders gain and use power?

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Has 3260 l.jpg

HAS 3260

Leadership

Dr. Burton


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  • "Learning is not compulsory... neither is survival." - W. Edwards Deming

  • "It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory." - W. Edward Deming


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Leading -- to Inspire Effort

  • Planning Ahead

    • What is leadership?

    • How do leaders gain and use power?

    • What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?

    • What can be learned from contingency theories of leadership?

    • What are current trends in leadership development?


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Can a leader by irrelevant to goal attainment?

  • Substitutes

    • Employee characteristics

      • Experience

      • Skill level and training

      • Need for autonomy

    • Job Characteristics

      • Well defined and routine

      • Intrinsically satisfying

    • Organizational Characteristics

      • Explicit formalized goals

      • Rigid rules and procedures

      • Cohesive work groups


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Are leaders born?


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Why do ordinary people achieve great things?

  • 50% of all CEOs of Fortune 500 companies had C average or worse in college.

  • Nearly 75% of all U.S. presidents were in the bottom half of their school classes.

  • 50% of all millionaire entrepreneurs never finished college.

    “The answer is passion. Nothing can take the place of passion in a leader’s life.” Source: John Maxwell


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“World Class Leaders”Rosabeth Moss Kanter

  • Lesson on leadership…”are often drawn from disparate figures as Jesus Christ, Mahatma Ghandi, Attila the Hun, and Niccolo Machiavelli.”

  • “Many leaders of historical renown and many contemporary leaders of traditional institutions succeeded by focusing on the needs of their own organization and by being the best advocate for the interests of their own group.”

  • “Leaders of the future can no longer afford to maintain insularity. It is simply not an option in an increasingly borderless world of … customer power.”


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Charisma

  • The ability to draw people to you.

  • It can be developed.


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Roadblocks to charisma

Pride: Nobody wants to follow a leader who thinks he is better than everyone else.

Insecurity: If you are uncomfortable with who you are, others will be, too.

Moodiness: If people never know what to expect from you, they stop expecting anything.

Perfectionism: People respect the desire for excellence, but dread unrealistic expectations.

Cynicism: People don’t want to be rained on by someone who sees clouds around every silver lining.


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To improve your charisma

  • Change your focus.

  • Play the first impression game.

    • Learn the person’s name.

    • Focus on her interests

  • Share yourself.

    “it’s all in the greetings and good-byes.”

    Dolly Madison


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Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders

1. Idealized goal: Charismatic leaders have vision that proposes a future better than the status quo. The greater the disparity between this idealized goal and the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leaders.

2. Ability to help others understand the goal: They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. This explanation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and, act as a motivating force.

3. Strong convictions about their goal: Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed, and willing to take on high personal risk, incur high costs, and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.

4. Behavior that is unconventional: They engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel, out of the ordinary, and counter to norms. When successful, these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers.

5. Assertive and self-confident: Charismatic leader have complete confidence in their judgement and ability.

6. High self-monitoring: Supervisors who can easily adjust their behavior to different situations.

7. Appearance as a change agent: They are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo.


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Becoming a Leader

  • Technical Skills

    • Become an expert

  • Conceptual Skills

    • See the Big Picture

  • Networking Skills

    • Take care of your people

  • Human-Relations Skills

    • Coaching, Facilitating, Supporting


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Five common Misconceptions about leadershipby John Maxwell

  • The Management Myth

    • Leading and managing are not the same

  • The Entrepreneur Myth

    • All salespeople and entrepreneurs are not leaders

  • The Knowledge Myth

    • IQ does not necessary equate to leadership

  • The Pioneer Myth

    • Being out front of the crowd in not leading

  • The Position Myth

    • “Its not the position the makes the leader, it the leader that makes the position” Stanley Huffty


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Points of Self-discipline for leadersby John Maxwell

  • Challenge your excuses

    • “Almost all our faults are more pardonable than the methods we think up to hide them.” Francois La Rouchefoucauld

  • Remove rewards until the job is done

    • “Any Business that pays equal rewards to its goof-offs and its eager-beavers sooner or later will find itself with more goof-offs.” Mike Delaney

  • Stay focused on results

    • “Talent without discipline is like an octopus on roller skates. There’s plenty of movement, but you never know if it’s going to be forward, backward, or sideways.” H. Jackson Brown Jr.


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Leadership and Vision

    • Leadership

      • process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks

    • Vision

      • someone who has clear sense of future

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Leadership and Power

    • Power

      • ability to get someone else to do what you want them to

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Sources of Position Power

    • Reward

      • influence through rewards

    • Coercive

      • influence through punishment

    • Legitimate

      • influence through authority

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Sources of Personal Power

    • Expert

      • influence through special expertise

    • Referent

      • influence through identification

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Turning Power Into Influence

    • centrality

    • criticality

    • visibility

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Turning Power Into Influence

    • position power and interpersonal skills

      • no substitute for expertise

      • likable personal qualities are very important

      • effort and hard work breed respect

      • personal behavior must support expressed values

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Acceptance Theory of Power

    • the other person must

      • understand the directive

      • feel capable of carrying out the directive

      • feel the directive is in the organization’s best interests

      • believe the directive is consistent with personal values

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Empowerment


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The Nature of Leadership

  • Leadership and Empowerment

    • benefits

      • allows people to act independently

      • manager gains power

      • creates positive relationships

      • builds reference power

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Six Traits of Effective Leadership

Drive

Honesty and

Moral Character

Intelligence

Relevant

Knowledge

Self-confidence

Desire to Influence

Others

TRAITS


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Leadership Traits and Behaviors

  • Search for Leadership Traits

    • drive

    • desire to lead

    • motivation

    • honesty and integrity

    • self-confidence

    • intelligence and knowledge

    • flexibility

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Leadership Traits and Behaviors

  • Focus on Leadership Behaviors

    • Task and People Concerns

      • task concern

        • plans and defines work to be done

        • assigns task responsibilities

        • sets clear work standards

        • urges task completion

        • monitors results

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Leadership Traits and Behaviors

  • Focus on Leadership Behaviors

    • Task and People Concerns

      • people concern

        • acts warm and supportive

        • develops social rapport with them

        • respects their feelings

        • sensitive to their needs

        • shows trust in them

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Leadership Traits and Behaviors

  • Focus on Leadership Behaviors

    • Styles

      • abdicative or laissez-faire

      • directive or autocratic

      • supportive or human relations

      • participative or democratic

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Fiedler’s Contingency Model

    • good leadership depends on a match between leadership and situational demands

      • least-preferred coworker scale (LPC)

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Fiedler’s Contingency Model

    • Diagnosing situational control

      • leader-member relations (good or poor)

      • degree of task structure (high or low)

      • amount of position (strong or weak)

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Fiedler’s Contingency Model

    • Matching leadership style and situation

      • task oriented leader is most successful

        • very favorable (high control)

        • very unfavorable (low control)

      • relationship oriented leader is most successful

        • moderate control situation

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Fiedler’s Leadership Findings

Situational

Factors IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIII

Respect for

FollowersGoodGoodGoodGoodPoorPoorPoorPoor

Structured

JobsHighHighLowLowHighHighLowLow

Influence over

Employment

ProcessStrongWeakStrongWeakStrongWeakStrongWeak

Preferred

Leader

BehaviorTaskTaskTaskPeoplePeoplePeopleTaskTask

Centered Behavior


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

    • Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers

      • readiness

        • how able, willing and confident followers are to perform tasks

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Situational LeadershipLeader behaviors

High

Relationship

and

Low Task

High Task

and

High

Relationship

Selling

Participating

(Low) Relationship Behavior (High)

(Supportive Behavior)

Low

Relationship

and

Low Task

High Task

and

Low

Relationship

Delegating

Telling

(Low) Task Behavior (High)

(Directive Behavior)

Moderate

Low

High

Immature

Mature

R4

R3

R2

R1

Follower Readiness


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Developments in Organization Structures

  • Network Structures

    • central core that is linked through networks of relationships with outside suppliers of essential services

      • boundaryless organizations

      • virtual corporations

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Matching Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Styles to Follower Readiness

    • Delegating = high readiness

    • Participating = moderate to high readiness

    • Selling = low to moderate readiness

    • Telling = low readiness

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • House’s Path-Goal Leadership Theory

    • directive

    • supportive

    • achievement-oriented

    • participative

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Substitutes for Leadership

    • Subordinate characteristics

    • Task characteristics

    • Organizational characteristics

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation Theory

    • Choosing the best decision-making method

      • authority

      • consultative

      • group

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation Theory

    • Effective Leadership

      • know when each decision method is best

      • be able to implement well

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation Theory

    • Use group-oriented decision-making when

      • leaders lack sufficient information

      • problem is unclear

      • acceptance of decision by others is important

      • adequate time is available

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Contingency Approaches to Leadership

  • Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation Theory

    • Use authority-oriented decision-making when

      • leaders have expertise to solve problem

      • leader is confident and capable of acting alone

      • others are likely to accept the decision

      • little or no time available for discussion

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Trends in Leadership Development

  • What is Transformational Leadership?

    • Use of charisma and related qualities to raise aspirations and shift people and organizational systems into new high-performance patterns

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Trends in Leadership Development

  • Transactional Leadership

    • Use of tasks, rewards and structures to help followers meet their needs while working to accomplish organizational objectives

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Trends in Leadership Development

  • Qualities of Transformational Leaders

    • vision

    • charisma

    • symbolism

    • empowerment

    • intellectual stimulation

    • integrity

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Directions in Leadership Development

  • Emotional Intelligence (EI)

    • ability to understand and deal well with emotions at work

    • threshold capabilities are technical or knowledge-based skills

    • excellence in leadership depends on EI

    • can be learned


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5 Components of EI

  • Self-awareness

  • Self-regulation

  • Motivation

  • Empathy

  • Social skill


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Do Men and Women Lead Differently

?


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Trends in Leadership Development

  • Gender and Leadership

    • Women may be more prone to democratic and participative behaviors

    • Men may be more transactional

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Trends in Leadership Development

  • “Good Old-Fashioned” Leadership

    • define and establish a sense of mission

    • accept leadership as responsibility rather than rank

    • earn and keep trust of others

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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Trends in Leadership Development

  • Ethical Aspects of Leadership

    • responsibility to set high ethical standards

    • obligation to supply necessary spark to awaken potential

    • high expectations tend to generate high performance

Schermerhorn - Chapter 13


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“The first key to greatness is to be in reality what we appear to be.”

Socrates


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Second Tier Leaders

  • What is a 2nd tier leader?

  • What behaviors are required that are different from 1st tier leaders?

  • What are the career implications for 2nd tier leaders?

    • If successful?

    • If failed?


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“The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his time when it comes.”

Benjamin Disraeli


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