Early atomic theory and structure
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Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Chapter 5. What are the building blocks of matter?. Early Greeks Air, Earth, Water, Fire Democritus (470-370 BC) Atoms John Dalton (1766-1844) Modern Atomic Theory. Dalton’s Atomic Theory.

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Early Atomic Theory and Structure

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Early atomic theory and structure

Early Atomic Theory and Structure

Chapter 5


What are the building blocks of matter

What are the building blocks of matter?

  • Early Greeks

    • Air, Earth, Water, Fire

  • Democritus (470-370 BC)

    • Atoms

  • John Dalton (1766-1844)

    • Modern Atomic Theory


Dalton s atomic theory

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

  • Elements (matter) is composed of small, indivisible particles called atoms.

  • Atoms of a given element are identical in mass and behavior.

  • Atoms of different elements differ in mass and behavior.

  • Chemical combination of elements to make different substances occurs when atoms join together in small whole number ratios.

  • Chemical reactions only rearrange the way the atoms are combined; the atoms themselves are not changed.


Law of constant composition

Law of Constant Composition

  • The composition of a substance is always the same, regardless of how the substance was made or where the substance is found.

Law of Multiple Proportions

  • Atoms of two or more elements may combine in different ratios to form different compounds.

Both explained by Dalton’s Law.


Sub atomic particles

Sub Atomic Particles


Atoms are composed of

Atoms are composed of


Isotopes

Isotopes

  • Atoms which differ only in the number of neutrons present in the nucleus.

  • Neutrons help keep the protons together by adding to the strong nuclear force without adding to the mutually repulsive electrical force of the protons.

    • Generally 1-1.5 neutrons per proton in an atom’s nucleus.


Early atomic theory and structure

Atomic Number = Z = number of protons in an atom. = number of electrons in a neutral atom. Mass Number = number protons + number neutrons in an atom


Early atomic theory and structure

  • Fill in the missing information in the following table of four neutral atoms:


Early atomic theory and structure

  • Fill in the missing information in the following table of ions:


Atomic mass

Atomic Mass

  • The average relative mass of the isotopes of an element compared to the atomic mass of carbon-12 (exactly 12 amu)

  • Atomic mass unit (amu)

    • 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom

    • 1.6606 x 10-24 g


Isotopes of neon

Isotopes of Neon


Isotopes of neon1

Isotopes of Neon


Early atomic theory and structure

The precious metal platinum (Z=78) has six isotopes with these abundances:

Use these data to calculate the average atomic mass of platinum.


Early atomic theory and structure

  • Boron, lithium, nitrogen, and neon each have two stable isotopes. In which of the following pairs of isotoopes is the heavier isotope more abundant?


Early atomic theory and structure

  • Using the following table of abundances and masses of the three naturally occurring argon isotopes, calculate the mass of 40Ar.


Early atomic theory and structure

  • Silver (Ag) has two stable isotopes: 107Ag, 106.90 amu and 109Ag, 108.90 amu. If the average atomic mass of silver is 107.87 amu, what is the natural abundance of each isotope?


Early atomic theory and structure

  • It takes nearly twice the energy to remove an electron from a helium atom as it does to remove an electron from a hydrogen atom. Propose an explanation for this.


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