Cost optimal facade design solutions of office buildings tallinn 10 10 2013
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Cost optimal facade design solutions of office buildings Tallinn 10.10.2013. Martin Thalfeldt PhD student in TUT www.nzeb.ee. Objectives. Developing energy and cost efficient facade design principles for nearly zero energy building ( non-residential ) Studies so far : window U>1.0

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Cost optimal facade design solutions of office buildings tallinn 10 10 2013

CostoptimalfacadedesignsolutionsofofficebuildingsTallinn 10.10.2013

Martin Thalfeldt

PhDstudentin TUT

www.nzeb.ee


Objectives
Objectives

  • Developingenergy and costefficientfacadedesignprinciplesfornearlyzeroenergybuilding (non-residential)

  • Studies so far: window U>1.0

  • Questions: optimalsizeofwindows, highly transparent orsolarprotectionglazing, externalshadingornot, insulationthickness, facade vs PV

  • Influenced: daylight, heating, cooling, electriclighting, investment

  • Studyprocedures:

    • Energy and indoorsimulations + financialcalculationsof a genericoffice floor model

    • Number of windowpanesupto 5, U=0.21

    • Financialfeasability-> min. 20 year NPV

    • Bestpossibleenergyefficiency


Methods
Methods

  • Criteriaformostfinanciallyfeasiblecaseisminimum net present value, whichincludesinvestmentcost and 20 yearenergyuse.

  • CalculationsaccordingtoEstonianenergyefficiencyrequirements

Smallestenergyconsumption ≠ min €


Step 1 minimum window size
Step 1 Minimumwindowsize

  • Averagedaylightfactor≥ 2%

  • Minimumsizedwindows


Step 1 minimum window size1
Step 1 Minimumwindowsize


Step 2 highly transparent or solar protection glazing
Step 2 Highly transparent orsolarprotectionglazing?

Deliveredenergy

Primaryenergy

Highly transparent glazingallowsreachingbetterenergyefficiency!


Step 3 number of panes and insulation thickness in balance
Step3 Number ofpanes and insulationthicknessinbalance!

  • 3 pane glazing – insulation 200 mm (U=0,16)

  • 4 pane glazing – insulation 250 mm (U=0,13)

  • 5 pane glazing – insulation 390 mm (U=0,09)


Step 4 energy efficient facade solutions
Step 4 Energyefficientfacadesolutions


Most energy efficient facade solution
Mostenergyefficientfacadesolution

Office floor primary energy=85.5 x 1.2 = 102.6 kWh/m2

Financiallymostfeasiblesolution

Office floor primary energy=93.6 x 1.2 = 112.6 kWh/m2


Cooling capacities
Coolingcapacities

  • Windowsizeaffectscoolingcapacitiesinadditiontoenergyconsumption

  • Tripleglazingwith WWR ca 25% mightbe a moresensiblesolution


From low energy to nzeb
FromlowenergytonZEB

3 panes, WWR 37.5% (Costoptimal)

4 panes, WWR 37.5% (North 60%)

5 panes, WWR 29.5%

5 panes, WWR 60% (Energyefficient)


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Space heating dominatesincaseofdouble and triplewindows, theproportionof heating reducesas no ofpanesincreases

  • Smallerwindowsresultinbetterenergyefficiencyincaseofdouble and tripleglazing

  • Financiallymostfeasiblecaseistripleglazingwithhighthermalresistance (U=0.54 g=0.49), windowtowallratio ca 25%, insulationthickness 200 mm (U=0.16)

  • Bestenergyefficiencywasachievedwithquintupleglazing (U=0.21 g=0.24), windowtowallratio 60%, insulationthickness 390 mm (U=0.09)

  • Incaseofquadrupleglazing (U=0.32 g=0.36) theoptimalwindowtowallratiois ca 40%

  • Externalshadingisnotnecessaryifwindows are sizedaccordingtoaveragedaylightfactor 2%

  • Itismorereasonabletousecostoptimalfacadesolution and install more PV panels

  • Necessitytostudytheinfluenceofexternalshadingcontrolstrategies and doublefacade on energyefficiencyoccurred


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