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Day 3 Commas 2

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Day 3 Commas 2 . Commas… To set of nonrestrictive phrases and clauses. Use commas to set off information that is not necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence. Example:

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Day 3

  • Commas 2
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Commas…

  • To set of nonrestrictive phrases and clauses.
    • Use commas to set off information that is not necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence.
    • Example:
      • People get drinking water from surface water or groundwater, which makes up only one percent of the earth’s water supply.
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Unrestricted = not necessary, not required, additional information.

  • Restricted = necessary, required information.
    • Restricted phrases or clauses are not set off with a comma.
    • Example:
      • Groundwater that is free from harmful pollutants is rare.
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To set off titles or initials

    • Use commas to set off a title, a name, or initials that follow a person’s name. (Use only one period if an initial comes at the end of a sentence.)
    • Example:
      • Melanie Prokat, M.D, is our family’s doctor. However, she is listed in the phone book as Prokat, M.
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To set off interruptions

    • Use commas to set off a word, phrase, or clause that interrupts the main thought of a sentence.
    • Examples:
      • There are, indeed, about 1,000 people in my school. (word)
      • The gym, not the cafeteria, was expanded a while ago. (phrase)
      • Our school, as we all know, is becoming overcrowded again. (clause)
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Identify interruptions by using the following test:

  • You can leave them out of a sentence without changing the sentence’s meaning.
  • You can place them other places in the sentences without changing the sentence’s meaning.

Homework:

    • Please complete pages ____________ in your notebook.
    • Homework is due next class meeting.
    • 10 points
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Practice!

  • Complete “Comma 2” in your notebook on the left side. Title your page “Comma 2.” You only have to write the answer.
  • You may not leave when the bell rings if you did not finish the assignment.
  • You have 15 minutes. You may work together. We will correct your answer in class.
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Day 4

  • Commas 3
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To set off appositives

    • Commas set off an appositive from the rest of the sentence.
    • An appositive is a word or phrase that identifies or renames a noun or pronoun.
    • Examples:
      • The capital of Cyprus, Nicosia, has a population of almost 643,000.
      • Cyprus, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, is about half the size of Connecticut.
  • The Mediterranean island Cyprus is about half the size of Connecticut.
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To separate equal adjectives

  • Use commas to separate two or more adjectives that equally modify the same noun.
  • Adjectives are describing words that modifies nouns.
  • Examples:
    • Comfortable, efficient cars are becoming more important to drivers
    • Some automobiles run on clean, renewable sources of energy.
    • Conventional gasoline engines emit a lot of pollution.
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Use these tests to help you decide if adjectives modify equally.

  • Switch the order of the adjectives; if the sentence is clear, the adjectives modify equally.
    • Yes: Efficient, comfortable cars are becoming more important to drivers
    • No: Gasoline conventional engines emit a lot of pollution.
  • Put the word and between the adjectives; if the sentence is clear, use a comma when and is taken out.
    • Yes: Comfortable and efficient cars are becoming more important to drivers.
    • No: Conventional and gasoline engines emit a lot of pollution.
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Homework:

  • Please complete pages ____________ in your notebook.
  • Homework is due next class meeting.
  • 10 points
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Practice!

  • Complete “Comma 3” in your notebook on the left side. Title your page “Comma 3.” You only have to write the answer.
  • You may not leave when the bell rings if you did not finish the assignment.
  • You have 15 minutes. You may work together. We will correct your answer in class.
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