General concepts of exercises to test preparedness
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IAEA Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response. General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness. Module L-051. Lecture. Objectives. Understand the concept of an integrated emergency preparedness program Understand the role of exercises within that program

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General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

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General concepts of exercises to test preparedness

IAEA Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response

General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness

Module L-051

Lecture


Objectives

Objectives

  • Understand the concept of an integrated emergency preparedness program

  • Understand the role of exercises within that program

  • Know the different types of exercises

  • Know the purpose of exercises

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Background

Background

  • EPR-METHOD 2003 – Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency provides:

    • Elements of good response plans and arrangements

    • Performance objectives

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Background cont d

Background (cont’d)

  • The evaluation of plans and resources is not sufficient

  • Training is important

  • The ability to perform is what matters

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Emergency preparedness program

Emergency Preparedness Program

QA

Programme

Organization

Authority

Meet

Response

Plans and

Procedures

Coordination

Objectives

Training

drill and

exercises

Logistical

support and

facilities

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Three components of an effective emergency preparedness program

Three Components of an Effective Emergency Preparedness Program

Plans

and

procedures

Exercises

Training

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Emergency preparedness effectiveness

Emergency Preparedness Effectiveness

  • How do we know if all the emergency preparedness is effective?

  • Do we know if it will really work?

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Evaluating performance

Evaluating Performance

  • Real Emergency

  • Drill

  • Table Top

  • Test

  • Exercise

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Real emergency

Real Emergency

  • The real test!

  • A learning experience, although too late

  • Even small incidents provide a good learning opportunity

    • If properly evaluated (post mortem)

    • If feed back process

    • If a positive learning attitude is maintained

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Drill

Drill

  • Drill = small directed exercise

  • Purpose is learning or testing a small portion of the plan or procedures

  • Examples

    • Activation drill

    • Survey drill

    • Medical drill

    • Decision-making drill

  • A drill is often preceded and/or followed by a training session

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Examples of drills

Communications

Notification

Station personnel accounting

Radiological monitoring

Off-site exposure assessment

Personnel dose assessment and control

Contamination control

Off-site protective actions

Medical first aid

Emergency analysis

Public information

Examples of Drills

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Table top

Table Top

  • Table top = exercise without deployment of resources

  • Used mainly for decision-makers

  • Evolution can be slow-time and discussion is encouraged

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


General concepts of exercises to test preparedness

Test

  • Test = evaluated or graded exercise for an individual or a team

  • A great way to verify performance

  • Examples: operator testing

  • Not suitable for a large organization or for several interacting organizations

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Exercises

Exercises

  • Exercise = coordinated response to a simulated and complex scenario

  • Exercises challenge

    • Plan

    • Procedures

    • Resources

    • Performance

  • The only real way (except for real emergencies) to test the integrated performance

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Exercises cont d

Exercises (cont’d)

  • Exercises are also an excellent training opportunity to:

    • Test new concepts

    • Learn to respond under stress

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Exercises1

Facility emergency

On-Site

Off-Site

Full Scale

Transport emergency, etc.

On-scene

Pre-hospital

Hospital emergency

Longer-term medical management

Exercises

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Why exercises

Why Exercises?

  • Emergency response exercises are:

    • Powerful tool for verification and improvement

    • Used for training, validation, evaluation and regulatory purposes

    • Increasingly considered an important part of safety

  • Their value depends on clear objectives:

    • Preparation

    • Conduct

    • Evaluation

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Purpose of an exercise

Purpose of an Exercise

  • To test the overall performance of emergency response plans, procedures, arrangements, resources and people

    • The main purpose is not to test individuals, but to test the system

    • The purpose of an exercise is not to demonstrate how good the response organizations are, or how bad they could be

  • To train

  • To test or explore new concepts and ideas

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Purpose of an exercise cont d

Purpose of an Exercise (cont’d)

A good exercise is not necessarily one where everything goes well, but rather one where many good lessons are learned

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Purpose of an exercise cont d1

Purpose of an Exercise (cont’d)

  • Validate a new plan or a new concept

  • Periodic verification

  • Communications

  • Regulatory compliance

  • Continued improvement

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Secrets to a good exercise

Secrets to a Good Exercise

  • Objectives must be clearly identified and communicated

  • Scenario must be realistic and challenging

  • Exercise instructions must be clear, well communicated and professional

  • Exercise control must be strict, non-intrusive and professional

  • Evaluation must be critical and well substantiated

  • Evaluation report must be timely

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Some important definitions exercise team

Some Important Definitions:Exercise Team

  • Controllers

    • Manage the exercise

    • Provide the necessary injects and data

  • Evaluators

    • Take notes during the exercise

    • Evaluate the exercise

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Some important definitions players

Some Important Definitions: Players

  • Emergency responders

  • Take part in the exercise by taking actions required as if it were a real emergency

  • Part of the organizations being evaluated

  • Do not know the exercise scenario

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Some important definitions observers

Some Important Definitions: Observers

  • Observers observe!

  • They do not interfere

  • They do not manage

  • They do not evaluate

  • They stay out of the way!

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


Summary

Summary

  • Emergency response exercises

    • Are part of a safety program

    • Are the only way to test performance in real time (other than real events)

    • Challenge the entire organization and its interfaces

    • Challenge communications

    • Can be an excellent continuous improvement tool

L-051: General Concepts of Exercises to Test Preparedness


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