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Gender As Moderator Of Temperamental Background Of Impulse Buying Tendency. Agata Gąsiorowska Wrocław University of Technology. 1. What is Impulsive buying? 1960s. impulsive buying = unplanned buying

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Gender As Moderator Of Temperamental Background Of Impulse Buying Tendency

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Gender as moderator of temperamental background of impulse buying tendency l.jpg

Gender As Moderator Of Temperamental BackgroundOf Impulse Buying Tendency

  • Agata Gąsiorowska

  • Wrocław University of Technology

1


What is impulsive buying 1960s l.jpg

What is Impulsive buying?1960s

  • impulsive buying = unplanned buying

  • impulsive buying as special form of unplanned buying, activated by visual stimulus (product) and executed in a very short time

2


What is impulsive buying 1970s l.jpg

What is Impulsive buying?1970s

  • Researchers had begun to question whether products could be classified as impulse or non-impulse

  • All products could be purchased impulsively

  • It is the consumer not the product, who experiences impulses

3


What is impulsive buying 1980s l.jpg

What is Impulsive buying?1980s

  • Focus on how consumer behave during shopping, and on mental and emotional processes that might take place

  • Clarification of definition - Rook (1987), Rook and Hoch (1985)

  • „Impulse buying occurs when a consumer experiences a sudden, often powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. The impulse to buy is hedonically complex and may stimulate emotional conflict. Also, impulse buying is prone to occur with diminished regard for its consequences” (Rook, 1987, p.191)

  • Acts of impulsive buying versus impulsive buying tendency interpreted as a trait

4


Determinants of impulsive buying l.jpg

Determinants of impulsive buying

  • Individual traits influencing impulsive buying tendency

    • general impulsivity, optimal level of stimulation, temporal orientation, materialism, money attitudes, recreational shopping tendency, shopping style influenced by gender

  • Individual and situational factors that trigger impulses in certain situation while shopping

    • affect and emotions felt during certain buying episode, individual attitude towards promotion, atmospherics, in-store stimuli, comfort and easiness of buying

  • Moderators that either inhibit impulsive decision like self-control, or stimulate it, like direct access to money, and – type of money used (cash, credit card), or normative evaluation of impulsive buying

5


Formal characteristics of behaviour l.jpg

Formal characteristics of behaviour

  • Dimensions of temperament as postulated by the Regulative Theory of Temperament

  • Based on the assumption that temperament refers to formal attributes of behaviour expressed in energetic and temporal characteristics

    • Briskness

    • Perseveration

    • Sensory sensitivity

    • Emotional reactivity

    • Endurance

    • Activity

6


Optimum stimulation level l.jpg

Optimum stimulation level

  • From consumers perspective, high optimal level of stimulation is associated with

    • detailed analysis of advertisements

    • searching for information just out of own curiosity

    • variety seeking in consumption

    • risky decisions

    • innovative behaviour

    • recreational and hedonic shopping

      • so it also might be connected with impulsive buying tendency

7


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Shopping style by gender

  • WOMEN

  • like shopping, even for necessities

  • pleasure in searching, choosing and trying

  • shop slowly and emotionally

  • stimulative impulsive buying

  • MEN

  • do not like shopping, exc. durable goods

  • shopping as a boring obligation

  • shop quickly

  • instrumental impulsive buying

8


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Hypotheses

  • H1: Gender moderates the relation between temperamental features and impulsive buying tendency

  • H2: For women, impulsive buying tendency is related to sensation seeking stronger than to formal attributes of behaviour

  • H3: For men, impulsive buying tendency is related to formal attributes of behaviour stronger than to sensation seeking

9


Method participants l.jpg

Method - Participants

  • Students of linguistics, teachers, bookstore workers, physical workers and unemployed, living in Wroclaw, Poland

  • n=180 respondents (86 men, 94 women)

  • age M=31.57 years (SD 12.806)

10


Method questionnaire l.jpg

Method - Questionnaire

  • Impulsive buying tendency

    • SKI Multidimensional Scale (Gasiorowska, 2003) - 23 items

    • Impulse buying scale, taken from SZN Scale (Macik, Macik, 2005) - based on Hausman IBT scale (2000) and consists on 10 items

  • Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (Zuckerman, 1994)

  • The Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI)

11


Analysis of correlations ski scale l.jpg

Analysis of Correlations - SKI scale

12


Analysis of correlations szn scale l.jpg

Analysis of Correlations - SZN scale

13


Formal characteristics of behaviour and impulsive buying tendency women l.jpg

Formal Characteristics of Behaviour and impulsive buying tendency - women

Activity

R2=0.06

β=0.25

Impulsive Buying Tendency

SKI Scale

Endurance

Emotional reactivity

β=0.32

R2=0.10

Impulsive Buying Tendency

SZN Scale

Sensory sensitivity

Briskness

Perseveration

χ2/df=1.513

RMSEA=0.076

CFI=0.930 TLI=0.915

14


Formal characteristics of behaviour and impulsive buying tendency men l.jpg

Formal Characteristics of Behaviour and impulsive buying tendency - men

Activity

R2=0.28

Impulsive Buying Tendency

SKI Scale

Endurance

β=-0.34

Emotional reactivity

β=-0.30

R2=0.23

Impulsive Buying Tendency

SZN Scale

β=-0.36

Sensory sensitivity

Briskness

β=-0.24

Perseveration

χ2/df=1.452

RMSEA=0.073

CFI=0.972 TLI=0.948

15


Formal characteristics of behaviour and impulsive buying tendency women16 l.jpg

Formal Characteristics of Behaviour and impulsive buying tendency - women

Thrill and Adventure Seeking

R2=0.19

Impulsive Buying Tendency

SKI Scale

β=0.17

Experience Seeking

β=0.31

R2=0.29

Impulsive Buying Tendency

SZN Scale

β=0.31

Disinhibition

β=0.30

Boredom Susceptibility

χ2/df=1.528

RMSEA=0.075

CFI=0.987 TLI=0.962

16


Formal characteristics of behaviour and impulsive buying tendency men17 l.jpg

Formal Characteristics of Behaviour and impulsive buying tendency - men

Thrill and Adventure Seeking

R2=0

Impulsive Buying Tendency

SKI Scale

Experience Seeking

R2=0

Impulsive Buying Tendency

SZN Scale

Disinhibition

Boredom Susceptibility

χ2/df=1.077

RMSEA=0.030

CFI=0.994 TLI=0.990

17


Discussion l.jpg

Discussion

  • Gender moderates the relation between individual differences variables and impulsive buying tendency

  • Women - stimulative impulse buying

    • desire to seek new experience might be easily fulfilled by shopping, especially in impulsive manner

    • they treat impulse buying as a kind of risky game that is to provide high level of stimulation, needed by some consumers

  • Men - instrumental impulsive buying

    • Low briskness and low sensory sensitivity might promote giving in to various marketing influences, like promotion, sales, etc.

    • Men with such features cannot cope effectively with loads of information in shopping environment, so it leads to cognitive overload and unreflective behaviour

18


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