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Chapter 4. Conditioning & Strength Training in Athletics. Overview. Purpose of conditioning and strength training Fitness-testing procedures Fitness-testing parameters Exercise prescription Developing the strength-training program Types of strength training Equipment selection

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

Conditioning & Strength Training in Athletics

  • Purpose of conditioning and strength training
  • Fitness-testing procedures
  • Fitness-testing parameters
  • Exercise prescription
  • Developing the strength-training program
  • Types of strength training
  • Equipment selection
  • Integrating other fitness components
  • Preventing injury
purpose of conditioning and strength training
Purpose of Conditioning and Strength Training
  • Athletes’, and the athletic trainer\'s, role in conditioning and strength training
    • Optimize performance & athletic development
    • Prevent injury
  • People in other exercise settings
    • Enhance health and wellness
    • Optimize performance
  • Older adults
    • Maintain health and wellness
    • Improve quality of living
fitness testing procedures
Fitness-Testing Procedures
  • Measures the athlete\'s level of fitness
    • Helps identify muscle groups or energy sources that need to be trained
  • Usually includes tests of muscular function, cardiovascular function, speed, agility, and body composition
    • SPARQ testing provides sport-specific evaluation
  • Preseason participation evaluation
fitness testing procedures1
Fitness-Testing Procedures
  • Ongoing evaluations
    • For athletes
      • Help to identify particular weaknesses that may have developed
    • For physically active (non competitive athletes)
      • Indicate progress toward fitness goals and whether changes in the program are advisable
  • Postseason fitness evaluations
    • Used to plan and assess the off-season training program
fitness testing parameters
Fitness-Testing Parameters
  • Muscle function
    • Muscle strength
      • Ability of the muscle or group of muscles to overcome a resistance
      • 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test
    • Muscular endurance
      • Ability of a muscle or group of muscles to perform a repetitive action
      • Sit-ups, push-ups, or more sport-specific evaluations such as the squat with a light weight for a cross country runner
    • Muscle power
      • Rate of performing work: A weight lifted (force) through a range of movement (usually a vertical distance) divided by the unit of time required to perform the lift
      • Vertical jump
fitness testing parameters1
Fitness-Testing Parameters
  • Cardiovascular function
    • Evaluating aerobic power
      • Ability to use oxygen in performing work
      • 1.5 mile (2.4 km) timed run, step test, 2 mile (3.2 km) timed run
    • Evaluating anaerobic power
      • Ability to perform activities of very short duration using metabolic processes that produce energy without oxygen
      • Vertical jump, shuttle run
fitness testing parameters2
Fitness-Testing Parameters
  • Agility and speed
    • Agility
      • The ability to start, stop, and change direction
      • Shuttle run, T-test, Edgren Side Step test
      • Proper footwear; time to learn the pattern before being timed
    • Speed
      • Length of time required to travel a set distance
      • Running—preferably in distances similar to those that occur in the sport; timed dashes such as the 40 yd (37 m) or 100 yd (91 m) dash for sports with short bursts of sprinting
fitness testing parameters3
Fitness-Testing Parameters
  • Flexibility
    • Joint structure
      • Structure of joint surface determines the motions available
      • Ball-and-socket versus other types of joints
    • Effects of muscle size
      • Muscle bulk can limit movement
      • Can avoid this loss of flexibility in two ways: stretching the same muscle that is strengthened and strengthening the opposite muscles (antagonists)
fitness testing parameters4
Fitness-Testing Parameters
  • Flexibility (cont.)
    • Ligament and tendon composition
      • All connective tissues are made up of collagen and elastin
    • Some people have more elasticity than others have
    • Age and sex
      • Females tend to be more flexible than males
      • As people age, they tend to decrease in flexibility
    • Active people are more flexible than sedentary people
fitness testing parameters5
Fitness-Testing Parameters
  • Flexibility (cont.)
    • Testing
    • Importance
    • Hamstring: sit-and-reach test
    • Pectoralis major muscles: supine, elbows clasped behind head; then relax shoulders to allow elbows to move toward table
fitness testing parameters6
Fitness-Testing Parameters
  • Height, weight, and body composition
    • Uses of anthropometry: height and weight
      • To determine position on team an athlete is best suited for
      • Self-knowledge
      • Unexpected changes can be a sign of a medical condition
fitness testing parameters7
Fitness-Testing Parameters
  • Height, weight, and body composition
    • Body composition test is more significant
      • Amount of fat in relation to lean tissue
      • High levels of fat affect ability to move optimally and are associated with certain diseases and illnesses
      • Methods of measuring
        • Skin calipers
        • Body mass index
        • Hydrostatic weighing
        • Bioelectrical impedance
exercise prescription
Exercise Prescription
  • Needs analysis—considering the objectives of the program
    • What muscle groups should be conditioned?
    • Demands of sport: Physiological and biomechanical analysis of the skills of the sport
    • Abilities of the athlete
    • Energy systems
    • Muscle activity: concentric, eccentric, or isometric?
    • Injury patterns
      • Team\'s injury history
      • Athlete’s injury history
exercise prescription1
Exercise Prescription
  • Goal setting
    • Short-term goals
      • Include immediate (individual day) and short-range (month) goals
      • Contribute to the long-term goal
    • Long-term goals
      • Must be established by the athlete
      • Should be specific, measurable, and attributable to the conditioning program
    • Limitations to the plan
      • Recognize that obstacles to achieving the goal will occur, and establish alternate plans
      • Provide communication and encouragement
exercise prescription2
Exercise Prescription
  • Exercise plans
    • Training volume: Amount of work performed
    • Exercise order
    • Station approach: Maximize overload on one muscle group before moving to the next
    • Circuit training: Work a muscle group to fatigue, and then hurry to the next exercise, maintaining the elevated heart rate
developing the strength training program
Developing the Strength-Training Program
  • Resistance and overload: essential to every program
  • Exercise intensity
    • The percentage of the 1RM: relationship of percentage to strength gains
    • Hypertrophy method
    • Goal is increased muscle mass through increasing the size of individual muscle fibers
    • 5 to 12 reps at 70 to 85% of the 1RM
  • High-intensity training method (HIT)
    • Goal is to improve recruitment of existing muscle fibers rather than to increase the size of the fibers
    • Intensity reaches up to 100%; amount of weight increased if athlete can lift prescribed weight more than four times
developing the strength training program1
Developing the Strength-Training Program
  • Periodization
    • Brings about peak performance by constantly changing training stimulus (intensity, volume, specificity, etc.)
    • Reduces risk of injury and overtraining
    • Macrocycle comprised of mesocycles, mesocycles comprised of microcycles
developing the strength training program2
Developing the Strength-Training Program
  • Macrocycle
    • Duration of competitive training
      • Annual for most athletes, every four years for Olympic athletes
    • Progresses from high volume, low intensity non-sport specific to low volume, low intensity, sport specific activity
developing the strength training program3
Developing the Strength-Training Program
  • Mesocycle
    • Preparatory phase
      • Off-season (3 sub-phases)
        • Hypertrophy/endurance
          • Low intensity, high volume
          • Non-sport specific
        • Strength
          • Moderate intensity, moderate volume
        • Power
          • High intensity, low volume
          • Sport-specific
developing the strength training program4
Developing the Strength-Training Program
  • Mesocycles (continued)
    • In-season
      • Competition phase
        • Maintenance driven
        • High intensity, low volume
    • Post-season
      • Transition phase
        • Unstructured
        • Allows time to recover physically & psychologically
developing the strength training program5
Developing the Strength-Training Program
  • Progressive overload
    • Gradual increase in the stress placed on a muscle as it gains strength or endurance
    • Accomplished through increasing repetitions or resistance
developing the strength training program6
Developing the Strength-Training Program
  • Rest periods and training frequency
    • Rest periods: Amount of time between consecutive sets
      • Longer—3 to 5 min—when training for absolute strength (1RM loads)
      • Shorter—30 to 60 sec—when training for muscle hypertrophy (8-12 reps with submaximal weight)
      • Rest periods in circuit training: 1:1 ratio and when to modify
    • Training frequency: Length of time between exercise sessions
      • Typically, weight training done on alternating days
      • Longer recovery needed if early in exercise program, if exercises are multijoint, if maximal or near-maximal loads are used
      • Shorter recovery needed if low volume used on days between high-volume training, or if athlete has been weightlifting on a regular basis for several years
types of strength training
Types of Strength Training
  • Isometric
    • Muscle generates a force, but there is no joint movement; resistance is greater than the athlete is able to move
    • Strength gains are greatest at the precise joint position at which the contraction is performed
    • Isometrics are not often applicable to sport performance, though consider holding positions in wrestling and gymnastics, abdominal muscles in swimming, abdominal and back muscles in running
    • Difficult to measure the overload
types of strength training1
Types of Strength Training
  • Isotonic
    • Moving the joint through a range of motion with a set amount of resistance applied
    • Occurs in lifting free weights and in most activities of daily living
  • Variable resistance
    • Delivers a varying resistance at different points in the range of motion
    • Offset cam on Nautilus/variable-resistance machines; sliding lever bar systems; rubber bands or elastic tubing (provides increased resistance as the band is elongated)
  • Isokinetics
    • Muscular action performed at a constant velocity
    • Isokinetic machines provide a maximum resistance throughout the entire range of joint movement
types of strength training2
Types of Strength Training
  • Concentric and eccentric training
    • Most sports involve both phases
    • Concentric muscle activity
      • The shortening of the muscle when a limb moves through a range of motion with a resistance applied
      • This muscle action is the force-production part of almost every human movement
    • Eccentric muscle activity
      • The lengthening of a muscle (lengthening contraction) that occurs with lowering of a weight
      • Does not occur in every form of isokinetic exercise (some isokinetic machines do allow eccentric contractions), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises, or manual resistance exercises without modifications
      • Does occur with most other weightlifting machines and in all forms of body weight conditioning (push-ups, pull-ups, sit-ups, etc.)
types of strength training3
Types of Strength Training
  • Plyometrics
    • Also known as stretch-shortening cycle exercise
      • Stretch phase: Eccentric loading phase
      • Shortening phase: Force-production or concentric phase
      • Every physical activity incorporates the stretch-shortening cycle
    • Critical feature: A concentric force production follows every eccentric load absorption
    • When a muscle is stretched prior to the onset of a contraction, the contraction is greater than it would have been otherwise
    • Can be used as part of a rehabilitation program or to prepare for a specialized skill or performance
equipment selection
Equipment Selection
  • Must understand biomechanics of the sport or activity, then attempt to find specific exercises to challenge the relevant muscles to adapt, and choose equipment on these parameters
  • Free weights
  • Strength-training machines
    • Can be less expensive than free weights
    • Safer for young athletes—cannot drop weight on foot or chest
    • May not provide an adequate range of exercises for all sizes of athletes or for all strength levels
equipment selection1
Equipment Selection
  • Individual machines
    • Take up more space and cost more than free weights
    • Major benefit: can exercise an individual joint action or muscle group
  • Other equipment
    • Functional activities
    • Plyo balls, elastics, swimming or pool work
  • Comparing equipment types
    • In general, free weights are thought to be more beneficial than machines
    • Machines offer an advantage when range of motion is limited—in rehabilitation situations or for athletes who have disabilities
integrating other fitness components
Integrating Other Fitness Components
  • Aerobic endurance training
    • Nearly every physical activity requires some degree of cardiovascular, or aerobic, endurance
    • Establish fitness level by using a cardiovascular stress test to determine the maximal heart rate
    • The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends an exercise intensity for aerobic conditioning between 60 and 90% of the maximal heart rate (or 50 to 80% of the VO2max obtained in a stress test)
    • Overload required, short-term goals leading to long-term goals in a steady progression
integrating other fitness components1
Integrating Other Fitness Components
  • Anaerobic training
    • Not as universally required as aerobic training, but critical in most sport activities
    • Training principles
      • Requires short, intense bursts of activity
      • Should be sport specific
      • Possible methods: running short, intense sprints; performing short, intense bouts on a slide-board, bicycle, step-up equipment; and so on
      • Cannot be sustained for long periods of time
      • Can use interval training to allow body to recover
    • Who should train anaerobically?
      • Primarily for people with moderate level of fitness who want to improve this aspect of their conditioning
      • Not appropriate for older adults or others who have low fitness levels, or for anyone who might risk injury doing exercise at high intensity
      • People at risk for cardiovascular disease should be carefully screened
    • Program design
      • Advantageous to vary distances of sprints during the workout
      • Increase volume gradually to avoid injury: Increase mileage or time spent by no more than 10% per week
      • Alternate interval training days with days of rest or more moderately paced exercise
integrating other fitness components2
Integrating Other Fitness Components
  • Flexibility/stretching programs
    • Rationale for stretching: reduction of injury? improvement of sport performance? use in rehabilitation?
    • Passive stretching
      • No work on the part of the athlete
      • Another person carries limb through range of motion; must have training
    • Active stretching
      • Athlete takes an active role in the stretching
      • Uses his or her own body to produce the stretch
    • Contract/relax stretching
      • Partner or therapist provides the resistance to the contraction and stretches the muscle group
      • Preliminary contraction may allow the muscle to more fully relax during the stretching cycle
      • Single, straight plane of motion
integrating other fitness components3
Integrating Other Fitness Components
  • Flexibility/stretching programs
    • Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
      • Requires that three movements occur: flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and rotation
      • Diagonal patterns of movement traversing three planes
    • Stretching methods
      • Static: Joint moved to the point at which tightness is felt, and that position held
      • Ballistic: Involves a bouncing movement; not entirely safe
      • Dynamic: Involves sport-specific movements; for example, "high knees" for sprinters
preventing injury
Preventing Injury
  • Coaching methods
    • Particular coaching techniques or instructions can cause or prevent injuries (e.g., spearing versus head up during tackling in football)
    • National Standards for Athletic Coaches (National Association for Sport and Physical Education/American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance [AAHPERD])
  • Matching athletes on motor skill performance
  • Controlling biomechanical stress/overuse
  • Role of extrinsic forces (someone else landing on your foot)
  • Modifying physical demands placed on athlete (being aware of illness and fatigue)
considerations for female athletes
Considerations for Female Athletes
  • Hormonal differences
  • Neural differences
  • Strength/body weight ratio
    • Absolute vs. relative strength