Hidrologia quimica da agua
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Hidrologia & Quimica da Agua. LBA SSC Cuiaba 15-17 Maio 2003. I. “Update” (em 3 escalas). Further reflections on LBA integration, from wetlands to a fully-coupled (or at least modeled) understanding. 1 km. Reach III. Aldeia River. Reach I. Reach IV. Reach II. N.

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Hidrologia quimica da agua

Hidrologia & Quimica da Agua

LBA SSC Cuiaba 15-17 Maio 2003

I. “Update” (em 3 escalas)

  • Further reflections on LBA integration, from wetlands

  • to a fully-coupled (or at least modeled) understanding


Hidrologia quimica da agua

1 km

Reach III

Aldeia River

Reach I

Reach IV

Reach II

N

Local scale.ND-03. Key connections in Amazonian stream

corridors (Krusche, Ballester, Victoria, Neill, Deegans)

Fazenda Nova Vida Sampling Scheme

  • Primary Focus 2003

  • Riparian transformations

  • In-stream processing

  • Regional scaling


Hidrologia quimica da agua

NH4+ NO3- DON

NH4+ NO3 DON

Precipitation

Throughfall

Soil solution

30 cm

Soil solution

100 cm

Gaseous loss

Streamwater


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Integration concept


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Figure 7. LANDSAT7 image (1999) of two first-order streams in the Paragominas area, showing land covers and proposed stream sampling points. Streams flow north.

Local Scale. ND-02. Dynamics of

Biogeochemical dynamics in secondary

Vegetation of Amazônia (Figueiredo,

Davidson et al.)

  • Current focus:

  • Upstream-downstream sampling of 3

  • hydrologic basins (100s of km2) for:

  • Expanded analysis of chemical distributions

  • Process level understanding of riparian zone

  • dynamics


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Mesoscale. CD-06 (aka ND-09) Horizontal and Vertical Fluxes

of Carbon in River Corridors

of the Amazon Basin. Act 1.

(Victoria, Krusche, Ballester

& seus amigos)

  • Complete research on the

  • question of landuse change and

  • its consequences for water chem-

  • istry in the Ji-Paraná River Basin

  • Complete field work, additional

  • Experiments

  • Focused hydro/geochemical

  • modeling

(lead student: D. Victoria)


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Meso/Basin Scale. LC-07 Multi-scale analysis of inundation with microwave & optical remote sensing: application to biogeochemical measurements and modeling (Novo, Melack, Forsberg)


Hidrologia quimica da agua

CH4 and CO2 Emissions

Central Amazon Basin (1.77 million km2)

Methane EmissionCO2 Evasion

Tg C y-1 Tg C y-1

7.6 + 2.3 210 + 60

Lowland Amazon Basin (5.19 million km2)

Methane Emission 25 + 8 Tg C y-1

Greenhouse gas potential~ 0.5 Pg C y-1

as CO2


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Research Needs

  • Process-based models

  • Ecological studies and methane emission measurements

  • Seasonally flooded savannas

  • Floodplains in eastern Peru

  • Interfluvial wetlands in upper Negro basin

  • Freshwater wetlands in Amazon delta

  • Riparian zones of streams


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Basin Scale. LC-04. Exploring interactions among the ecological, hydrological, and climate systems of Amazônia (Foley, Costa, Coe)

  • Recent developments (2000-2002)

  • Development of new datasets of physical basin characteristics (river network, sinuosity, etc.

  • Development of a parameterization to simulate spatially-explicit flooding in the Amazon

  • Simulation of the land-surface hydrology in the Amazon in the period 1935-1998; validation of results against observations of discharge, water height and flooded area

  • Analysis of interannual variability of land-surface hydrology

  • Development of empirical relationships between geometric characteristics of river channels in the Amazon basin


Hidrologia quimica da agua

  • 2. Planned activities for 2003-2005

  • Further development of the flooding model, with a new formulation for river height that considers the geometry of the channels

  • A new river flow velocity formulation based on the gradient of the water surface,

  • A decision rule for flooding

  • A new formulation for exchange of water between the aquifer and the river

  • - Use of the recently-released SRTM

  • - Adapt IBIS to simulate leaching of C from the soil

  • - Adapt HYDRA to include biogeochemical processing and downstream transport of carbon

  • * Perform experiments to investigate the effects of interannual climate variability and human activities on the hydrology and river biogeochemistry of the Amazon basin


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Objective 2. Expand research on the fluxes of gases between wetlands and

the atmosphere, by testing the working hypothesis that “CO2 evasion returns

as much carbon to the atmo-

sphere as is sequestered in

upland forests on an interan-

nual basis. Export of organic

material from upland and rip-

arian forests to fluvial environ-

ments is the primary source

of carbon that is eventually

respired in rivers and

evaded as CO2.”

3

0

T (>100m)

2

5

: 1.2 ± . 3 Mg C ha-1 y-1 (basin ~ .5 Gt y-1)

2

0

CO2 Evasion (Tg C mo-1)

1

5

1

0

MF

S (<100 m)

5

MC

0

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

(Local-to-) Basin Scale. CD-06. Act 2.

(Victoria, Krusche, Ballester, & seus amigos)


Hidrologia quimica da agua

RB

Ji-P

Cuiaba

Rede Beija–Rio

1) ∑space-timeCO2↑

* = f(????)

Belem

MAO

Pachitea

*Brasilia


Hidrologia quimica da agua

O Transecto do Tapajos


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Towards Integration across LBA

(above & beyond business as usual)

1. Land Cover and Land Use Change Science Questions:

LC–Q1 What are the rates and mechanisms of forest conversion to agricultural land uses, and what is the relative importance of these land uses?

LC–Q2 At what rate are converted lands abandoned to secondary forests; what is the fate of these converted lands, and what are

the overall dynamic patterns of land conversion and abandonment?

LC–Q3 What is the area of forest that is affected by selective logging each year? How does the intensity of selective logging influence

forest ecosystem function, thus altering forest regrowth and flammability?

LC–Q4 What are plausible scenarios for future land cover change in Amazônia?

2. Carbon Dynamics Science Questions:

CD–Q1 What is the (climatically driven) seasonal and interannual variability of the carbon dioxide flux between the atmosphere and different land cover/use types?

CD–Q2 How do biological processes such as mortality and recruitment or succession following land use change influence the net annual carbon balance for different land cover and land use types?

CD–Q3 What are the relative contributions of fluxes from natural and disturbed ecosystems to the net Amazônia-wide flux?

3. Trace Gas and Aerosol Flux Science Questions:

TG-Q1 How are fluxes of trace gases and aerosols between ecosystems (both upland and wetland) and the atmosphere of Amazônia affected by land cover and land use change?

TG-Q2 What is the (climatically driven) seasonal and inter-annual variability of trace gas and aerosol fluxes between the atmosphere and different land use and land cover types?

TG-Q3 Are losses and gains of carbon from Amazônian ecosystems in forms other than carbon dioxide (e.g. carbon monoxide, methane, volatile organic carbon, organic aerosol) of sufficient magnitude to influence ecosystem carbon balance?

4. Nutrient Dynamics and Surface Water Chemistry Science Questions:

ND–Q1 How do stocks, cycling rates and budgets of carbon and important elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al change under different

land covers and land uses?

ND–Q2 Are nutrients major factors that control the rates of regrowth and carbon accumulation in abandoned pastures and regrowing

secondary forests?

ND-Q3 What are the processes and consequences of atmospheric horizontal transport of nutrients (wind) on the nutrient stocks and

cycles of ecosystems within the Amazon basin at various spatial and temporal scales? For example, what are the effects of

Saharan dust inputs, losses and re-distribution due to fire, and links between physical climate models and nutrient cycling?

ND-Q4 How do changes in land use and climate alter the stocks, processes and fluxes of dissolved and particulate organic matter,

nutrients, and trace gases from the uplands across the riparian zones and floodplains and down the channels of river corridors?

ND-Q5 What is the importance of periodically "wet" environments (from moist soils to standing and flowing waters) for the land and

atmospheric balances of nutrients, carbon dioxide, trace gases, and water and energy on multiple scales?

Porque?

  • How does Amazônia currently func-

  • tion as a regional entity?

  • How will changes in land use and

  • climate affect the biological, chemical,

  • and physical functions of Amazônia, including the sustainability of development in the region and the influence of Amazônia on global climate?

Como?

  • Lembrando ……

  • …Limits of individual projects (including 24 hr/day)

  • …Desirability of concurrent field measurements and common

  • protocols (e.g., INTEGRA)

  • …Communication across disciplines not always direct

  • …Modeling designs & requirements, how information (really) flows


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Synthesis across Surface Waters

(Hydrology & Water Chem)

WETLANDS CARBON WORKING GROUP

San Francisco AGU, Dec ’02

* Key synthesis issues?

* Key data products to make it happen (and their publications)?

* Timelines?


Hidrologia quimica da agua

ARE THE WETLANDS A SOURCE (OR SINK) OF C?

Regional CO2= habitat (K * ΔpCO2 * km2)

Regional CH4= habitat (K * ΔCH4 * km2 + Ebullition + Stems)

CO2, CH4(atm)

7

6

4

OUTGASSING

4

1

POC

Soil

Accumulation

3

1

2

TOC Fluvial Transport & Rxn

5

DOC, pCO2,CH4

2

Encouraging Regional Synthesis on Wetlands Carbon


Hidrologia quimica da agua

DATA PRODUCTS: from existing Projects, which are …

1 PPr Sources to OM Pool

CD-x,ND-y

2 DOC & pCO2(CH4) export in GW

3 POC export (sediments, litter)

4 Macrophytes

REGIONAL

INTEGRATION

5 Stream transport & reaction

6 Outgassing rates

7 Atm CO2 <-> outgassing

1 Area (habitat, order)

2 Water flow properties


Hidrologia quimica da agua

TIMELINES

INFORMATION

RS&Hydro

MEASUREMENTS

[ Q] Expt’s

SYNTHESIS

(MODELS)

Jan ‘03

Build common

Info & coord

SDATAC I

Jun ‘03

Outgassing 1

Databases

Cangacu

Jan ‘04

Outgassing 2

Jun ‘04

Jan ‘05

Jun ‘05

THE ANSWER


Hidrologia quimica da agua

Across LBA synthesis(including “sub” surface)

Option 1. “Hard-wired” Coupled models


Hidrologia quimica da agua

RAMS

IBIS

CASA

Experiments

LBA-DIS

WetAMC

Governos

Edu/Trein

Option 2. LBA-EDS (LBA Environment DataStream)???

  • Would internet access to a continuous DataStream of

  • information which integrates all shared observation and

  • modeling activities;

  • - without worrying about data storage formats,

  • - while accessing only the data of interest to you,

  • using familiar data analysis and visualization packages

  • Be useful? Expedite work?

Modelled after emerging information and communication technology projects: Unidata IDD (Internet Data Distribution), DODS (Distributed Ocean Data System), THREDDS (Thematic Real-time earth Data Distributed Servers)


Hidrologia quimica da agua

  • PROPOSED SSC ACTION ITEM:

  • Undertake a proactive, LBA-wide “integration,” focused on (truly) answering the lead questions by the end of LBA (~’05).

  • Combining …..

  • Outcomes of individual projects

  • Current modeling projects

  • Concurrent sampling campaigns (INTEGRA)

  • Website highlights

  • “New” synthetic models as necessary

Tapajos River Evasion Signal (RAMS)


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