Hidrologia & Quimica da Agua. LBA SSC Cuiaba 15-17 Maio 2003. I. “Update” (em 3 escalas). Further reflections on LBA integration, from wetlands to a fully-coupled (or at least modeled) understanding. 1 km. Reach III. Aldeia River. Reach I. Reach IV. Reach II. N.
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Hidrologia & Quimica da Agua
LBA SSC Cuiaba 15-17 Maio 2003
I. “Update” (em 3 escalas)
Local scale.ND-03. Key connections in Amazonian stream
corridors (Krusche, Ballester, Victoria, Neill, Deegans)
Fazenda Nova Vida Sampling Scheme
NH4+ NO3- DON
NH4+ NO3 DON
Figure 7. LANDSAT7 image (1999) of two first-order streams in the Paragominas area, showing land covers and proposed stream sampling points. Streams flow north.
Local Scale. ND-02. Dynamics of
Biogeochemical dynamics in secondary
Vegetation of Amazônia (Figueiredo,
Davidson et al.)
Mesoscale. CD-06 (aka ND-09) Horizontal and Vertical Fluxes
of Carbon in River Corridors
of the Amazon Basin. Act 1.
(Victoria, Krusche, Ballester
& seus amigos)
(lead student: D. Victoria)
Meso/Basin Scale. LC-07 Multi-scale analysis of inundation with microwave & optical remote sensing: application to biogeochemical measurements and modeling (Novo, Melack, Forsberg)
CH4 and CO2 Emissions
Central Amazon Basin (1.77 million km2)
Methane EmissionCO2 Evasion
Tg C y-1 Tg C y-1
7.6 + 2.3 210 + 60
Lowland Amazon Basin (5.19 million km2)
Methane Emission 25 + 8 Tg C y-1
Greenhouse gas potential~ 0.5 Pg C y-1
Basin Scale. LC-04. Exploring interactions among the ecological, hydrological, and climate systems of Amazônia (Foley, Costa, Coe)
Objective 2. Expand research on the fluxes of gases between wetlands and
the atmosphere, by testing the working hypothesis that “CO2 evasion returns
as much carbon to the atmo-
sphere as is sequestered in
upland forests on an interan-
nual basis. Export of organic
material from upland and rip-
arian forests to fluvial environ-
ments is the primary source
of carbon that is eventually
respired in rivers and
evaded as CO2.”
: 1.2 ± . 3 Mg C ha-1 y-1 (basin ~ .5 Gt y-1)
CO2 Evasion (Tg C mo-1)
S (<100 m)
(Local-to-) Basin Scale. CD-06. Act 2.
(Victoria, Krusche, Ballester, & seus amigos)
* = f(????)
O Transecto do Tapajos
Towards Integration across LBA
(above & beyond business as usual)
1. Land Cover and Land Use Change Science Questions:
LC–Q1 What are the rates and mechanisms of forest conversion to agricultural land uses, and what is the relative importance of these land uses?
LC–Q2 At what rate are converted lands abandoned to secondary forests; what is the fate of these converted lands, and what are
the overall dynamic patterns of land conversion and abandonment?
LC–Q3 What is the area of forest that is affected by selective logging each year? How does the intensity of selective logging influence
forest ecosystem function, thus altering forest regrowth and flammability?
LC–Q4 What are plausible scenarios for future land cover change in Amazônia?
2. Carbon Dynamics Science Questions:
CD–Q1 What is the (climatically driven) seasonal and interannual variability of the carbon dioxide flux between the atmosphere and different land cover/use types?
CD–Q2 How do biological processes such as mortality and recruitment or succession following land use change influence the net annual carbon balance for different land cover and land use types?
CD–Q3 What are the relative contributions of fluxes from natural and disturbed ecosystems to the net Amazônia-wide flux?
3. Trace Gas and Aerosol Flux Science Questions:
TG-Q1 How are fluxes of trace gases and aerosols between ecosystems (both upland and wetland) and the atmosphere of Amazônia affected by land cover and land use change?
TG-Q2 What is the (climatically driven) seasonal and inter-annual variability of trace gas and aerosol fluxes between the atmosphere and different land use and land cover types?
TG-Q3 Are losses and gains of carbon from Amazônian ecosystems in forms other than carbon dioxide (e.g. carbon monoxide, methane, volatile organic carbon, organic aerosol) of sufficient magnitude to influence ecosystem carbon balance?
4. Nutrient Dynamics and Surface Water Chemistry Science Questions:
ND–Q1 How do stocks, cycling rates and budgets of carbon and important elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al change under different
land covers and land uses?
ND–Q2 Are nutrients major factors that control the rates of regrowth and carbon accumulation in abandoned pastures and regrowing
ND-Q3 What are the processes and consequences of atmospheric horizontal transport of nutrients (wind) on the nutrient stocks and
cycles of ecosystems within the Amazon basin at various spatial and temporal scales? For example, what are the effects of
Saharan dust inputs, losses and re-distribution due to fire, and links between physical climate models and nutrient cycling?
ND-Q4 How do changes in land use and climate alter the stocks, processes and fluxes of dissolved and particulate organic matter,
nutrients, and trace gases from the uplands across the riparian zones and floodplains and down the channels of river corridors?
ND-Q5 What is the importance of periodically "wet" environments (from moist soils to standing and flowing waters) for the land and
atmospheric balances of nutrients, carbon dioxide, trace gases, and water and energy on multiple scales?
Synthesis across Surface Waters
(Hydrology & Water Chem)
WETLANDS CARBON WORKING GROUP
San Francisco AGU, Dec ’02
* Key synthesis issues?
* Key data products to make it happen (and their publications)?
ARE THE WETLANDS A SOURCE (OR SINK) OF C?
Regional CO2= habitat (K * ΔpCO2 * km2)
Regional CH4= habitat (K * ΔCH4 * km2 + Ebullition + Stems)
TOC Fluvial Transport & Rxn
Encouraging Regional Synthesis on Wetlands Carbon
DATA PRODUCTS: from existing Projects, which are …
1 PPr Sources to OM Pool
2 DOC & pCO2(CH4) export in GW
3 POC export (sediments, litter)
5 Stream transport & reaction
6 Outgassing rates
7 Atm CO2 <-> outgassing
1 Area (habitat, order)
2 Water flow properties
[ Q] Expt’s
Info & coord
Across LBA synthesis(including “sub” surface)
Option 1. “Hard-wired” Coupled models
Option 2. LBA-EDS (LBA Environment DataStream)???
Modelled after emerging information and communication technology projects: Unidata IDD (Internet Data Distribution), DODS (Distributed Ocean Data System), THREDDS (Thematic Real-time earth Data Distributed Servers)
Tapajos River Evasion Signal (RAMS)