Spin dependent transport properties of magnetic nanostructures
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Spin Dependent Transport Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures. Amédée d’Aboville, with Dr. J. Philip, Dr. S. Kang, J. Battogtokh. Outline. Introduction to Nanostructures Magnetic Nanostructures Growth Properties Device fabrication Device characterization. What is Nano?.

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Spin Dependent Transport Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures

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Spin dependent transport properties of magnetic nanostructures

Spin Dependent Transport Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures

Amédée d’Aboville,

with Dr. J. Philip, Dr. S. Kang,

J. Battogtokh


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction to Nanostructures

  • Magnetic Nanostructures

    • Growth

    • Properties

    • Device fabrication

    • Device characterization


What is nano

What is Nano?

  • SI unit of length = 1m

  • Other units are the millimeter: 1x 10-3 m

    micrometer : 1 x 10-6 m

    nanometer : 1 x 10-9 m

    1 meter = 1 billion nanometers

  • The width of a hair is about 50 000 nm

  • Nanostructures have at least one dimension less than 100nm


What is nanotechnology

What is Nanotechnology?

  • Nanotechnology is the manipulation, fabrication, and characterization of nanostructures


What are the applications of nanotechnology

What are the Applications of Nanotechnology?

  • Better food packaging

  • Stronger, lighter materials

  • Optical Computing

  • Better Displays

  • Sunscreen

  • Quantum Computing

  • Spin-dependent electronics


Galfenol

Galfenol

  • Galfenol is a Gallium Iron compound with a specific stoichiometric composition (Ga0.2Fe0.8)

  • Galfenol is ferromagnetic, and has a Curie Temperature of 1000 K

  • There are also a range of interesting properties (ie. Magnetostriction).


Nanowire growth electro spinning

Nanowire Growth: Electro-Spinning

  • A syringe is filled with a solution of correct stochiometric compositions

  • A high potential is applied between the tip of the needle and the collector

  • Nanowires spin out of the syringe


Spin dependent transport properties of magnetic nanostructures

Optical Microscope picture of Electro-spun GaFe NW

mm


Sample preparation sonication

Sample Preparation: Sonication

  • Nanowires are separated from the substrate by placing in an ultrasonic bath

  • The Nanowires are left in an IPA solution


Preparation

Preparation

  • Coordinates of the NW are obtained using an SEM

  • Electrodes designed are designed using a Computer Aided Design program

  • The CAD file is fed into a computer

  • The computer controls a finely focused electron beam


Lithography

Lithography

  • A sample is coated with electron sensitive resist material, similar to photographic film

  • A computer controlled Electron Beam exposes certain parts of the resist

  • The exposed sections change molecular weight and can be dissolved in a particular solvent

Resist

Nanowire

Si Wafer


Ultra high vacuum deposition

Ultra-High Vacuum Deposition

  • State of the art technique to deposit high quality material

  • High vacuum can be achieved ( up to 10-10 torr)

  • Ti and Cu electrodes are deposited in thin sheets ( 5nm and 100nm, respectively)


Metallization and liftoff

Metallization and liftoff

  • Electrodes are deposited with the Ultra High Vacuum Deposition system

  • The sheet of resist is removed with acetone, leaving only the metal in the exposed parts

Resist

Nanowire

Si Wafer


Spin dependent transport properties of magnetic nanostructures

Galfenol Nanowire with Ti and Cu electrodes(500x)


Spin dependent transport properties

Spin Dependent Transport Properties

  • Placing Galfenol NW in an external field can orient its electron spin in the desired direction

  • The NW resistance changes with the orientation of its electrons relative to the current


Property measurements

Property Measurements

  • We apply a voltage and measure the resultant drain to source current

Nanowire acts as a channel

Drain

Source

Wafer acts as gate


Expected results

Expected Results

  • There is a thin sheet of oxide on top of the nanowire which acts as an insulator

  • The electrons get through the sheet by quantum tunneling

  • The oxide is a Quantum Tunneling Barrier

GaFe Oxide

Drain

Source

Nanowire

Wafer


Measured properties

Measured properties


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • We have grown Galfenol NW

  • Analyzed their structure

  • Built devices out of single NWs

  • Measured these device properties

  • Analyzed these device measurements


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