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Nationalism. Unification of Germany & Italy. Nationalism . Empires in Europe were made up of many different groups of people Nationalism fed the desire of most those groups to be free of the rule of empires and govern themselves in their traditional lands

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Nationalism

Nationalism

Unification of Germany & Italy


Nationalism1
Nationalism

  • Empires in Europe were made up of many different groups of people

  • Nationalism fed the desire of most those groups to be free of the rule of empires and govern themselves in their traditional lands

  • Nationalists were not loyal to kings, but to their people

  • Some rulers used nationalist feelings for their own purposes



Roots of nationalism
Roots of Nationalism

  • Napolean’s wars and Confederation of the Rhine spark’s German Nationalism

  • Conflicts between German states and a fear of lost power were barriers to unification

  • Favorable unrestricted trade encouraged cooperation

  • Rivalry with Austria and France

  • Failure of 1848 Revolutions made many people happy to achieve a central government by any means


Otto von bismarck
Otto Von Bismarck

  • Becomes Chancellor of Prussia in 1862

  • Realpolitik- realistic politics based on tough minded evaluation of needs of the state

  • Policy of “Blood and Iron” unites German states under Prussia- with war and strategy

  • Builds the Army into a World Power

  • Bismarck is loyal to Hohenzolern kings not to Prussia

    • Wants to help them rule over all German States



Three wars to unite german states
Three Wars to Unite German States

  • 1. Prussia allies with Austria to attack Denmark

  • Prussia and Austria win and take over parts of Denmark

  • 2. Prussia attacks Austria

    • Within weeks Prussia defeats Austria

  • Prussia annexes many Northern German States

  • Bismarck dissolves the German Confederation

  • 3. Instigates war with France


Franco prussian war
Franco-Prussian War

  • Empty Spanish throne leads to dispute between France and Prussia

  • Bismarck uses German nationalism to rally people to war

  • Bismarck tricks the French into declaring war by rewriting the “EMS Dispatch”

  • Well organized Prussian army crushes French

  • Germany is now under the control of one nation; Prussia


Building a new empire
Building A New Empire

  • By 1871 Germany is the new power in Europe

  • Industry:

    • #1 in Chemical and Electrical Industries

    • #2 in Shipping to Great Britain

  • Germany has a large supply of coal and iron to expand their industry

  • Disciplined and Educated work force

  • Germany becomes the major force in the production of steeland weapons


1871 second reich empire
1871 - Second Reich (Empire)

  • Constitution set up by Bismarck has two house legislature to make laws

  • Bundersat-upper house is appointed by rulers of German states –ignored by OVB

  • Reichstag- lower house; elected by universal manhood suffrage –little power

  • Power remains with emperor and chancellor


Foreign policy goals of bismarck
Foreign Policy Goals of Bismarck

  • Keep France weak and isolated

  • Strong links to Austria and Russia

  • Does not compete with British Navy

  • Build control over foreign colonies


Domestic policy goals of bismarck
Domestic Policy Goals of Bismarck

  • Crush all opposition to Imperial state

  • Attempted to get rid of the Catholic Church and Socialists

  • Demanded everyone put their loyalty to Germany above everything else




Obstacles to italian unification
Obstacles to Italian Unification

  • Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led people to identify with local regions

    • Venice - Ventians

    • Naples - Neapolitans

    • Florence - Tuscans

  • Congress of Vienna ignored nationalists; Austria controlled Northern Italy; Hapsburgs and French controlled the rest


Mazzini s young italy
Mazzini’s Young Italy

  • Guiseppe Mazzini founded Young Italy

  • Set up a revolutionary republic in Rome

  • French toppled it


Count camillo cavour
Count Camillo Cavour

  • Victor Emmanuel II was the constitutional monarch of Sardinia and the leader of the Risorgimento (nationalist movement)

  • Made Cavour his prime minister

  • Cavour believed in Realpolitik

  • Defeated Austria and annexed land

  • Diplomacy


Garibaldi s red shirts
Garibaldi’s Red Shirts

  • Nationalist from the Two Sicilies who volunteers wore red shirts

  • Worked with Cavour to unite Italy

  • Victor Emmanuel II crowned King of Italy in 1861


Challenges facing a united italy
Challenges Facing A United Italy

  • Regional differences

  • North: center of business and culture

  • South: rural and poor

  • Pope received the Vatican, but Catholics resented the seizure of the Papal States

  • Lacked the natural resources (such as coal) to industrialize the whole country

  • North industrializes and urbanizes

  • Southerners emigrate to the U.S.


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