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Inter-American Development Bank. Toward the Fifth Summit of the Americas (2009): Overview of Regional Challenges. Draft presentation prepared for the Summit Implementation and Review Group Organization of American States Washington, D.C. March 29, 2007.

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Inter-American Development Bank

Toward the Fifth Summit of the Americas (2009):Overview of Regional Challenges

Draft presentation prepared for the

Summit Implementation and Review Group

Organization of American States

Washington, D.C.

March 29, 2007


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List of key regional challenges --

short-term to medium-term and long-term:

1. Growth.

2. Poverty and Inequality.

3. Competitiveness.

4. Jobs and Opportunities.

5. Social Protection, Social Cohesion.

6. Governance.

7. Innovation.







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Comparación de las tasas de reducción de pobreza extrema, Asia y América Latina

Nota: Después de 2001 (2006 en el caso de ALC [lineas nacionales]) los datos son estimaciones basadas en observaciones recogidas durante el período 1981-2001 (1981-2006 en el caso de ALC [lineas nacionales]). Salvo en el caso de ALC (lineas nacionales), pobreza extrema se define como US $1 PPP/día.

Fuentes: Banco Mundial, PovCalNet Database, y CEPAL, Panorama Social de América Latina, 2006.


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Los pobres extremos están en los dos deciles más bajos de la distribución de ingreso.

Más allá de ellos, hay muchas personas con ingresos muy bajos. La desigualdad pronunciada involucra:

Poca diferencia entre el ingreso promedio absoluto de los 6 a 8 deciles más bajos.

Concentración de hogares alrededor de la linea de pobreza.

La presencia de shocks y vulnerabilidades implica que hacen falta políticas para proteger no-pobres de bajos recursos  mitigación y transferencia del riesgo de caer en pobreza.


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Jobs and opportunities la distribución de ingreso.

  • Unemployment, low wages, widening wage gaps, low average productivity, and job instability are peoples’ main concerns.

  • Some reduction in formal-sector unemployment 2006/2005 (next slide).

  • Policy domains (list non-exhaustive):

    • Education.

    • Property rights.

    • Business climate.

    • Credit.

    • Labor market flexibilization.

    • Infrastructure.

    • “Opportunities for the majority”.


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Social protection, social cohesion la distribución de ingreso.

  • Three compacts for protection, cohesion, and social rights:

    • Solidarity (revenue and spending).

    • Employment (the business climate and the social agenda).

    • Citizenship (democratic governance, effective institutions).

  • The social agenda:

    • Pro-poor, inclusive systems of services and protection.

    • Bridges between economic and social policy; and between social and employment/labor market policies.


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LA18: Social cohesion versus growth la distribución de ingreso.


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Governance la distribución de ingreso.

LA18: Rule of law versus growth

Source: World Bank WDI and Kaufmann et al. 1998-2005


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Governance la distribución de ingreso.

LA18: Corruption versus growth

Source: World Bank WDI and Kaufmann et al. 1998-2005


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Governance la distribución de ingreso.LA18: Government effectiveness versus growth

Source: World Bank WDI and Kaufmann et al. 1998-2005


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Innovation – la distribución de ingreso.un nuevo amanecer

  • The challenge here is to think outside of the box in key policy domains and in interaction with all relevant social partners and stakeholders.


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Some new IDB initiatives la distribución de ingreso.

•Opportunities for the Majority – public and private domains working to provide the majority with access to services and opportunities to build assets and improve thier lives.

• Water and Sanitation Initiative – focus on subnational governments to bring basic services to rural and poor communities.

• Lowering the cost of remittances – advancing opportunities through investment in housing and productive activities.


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• Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Initiative – la distribución de ingreso.the development of renewable energy sources, the mitigation of risks related to climate change and natural disasters.

• Debt relief for the region’s five poorest countries enabling them to scale up pro-poor investments and improve living conditions for millions.

• Infrastructure Investment Fund – working with the private sector to increase access to basic services.


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Inter-American Development Bank la distribución de ingreso.

Toward the Fifth Summit of the Americas (2009):Overview of Regional Challenges

Draft presentation prepared for the

Summit Implementation and Review Group

Organization of American States

Washington, D.C.

March 29, 2007


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