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Motivation in Organizations. Chapter 7: 205-222 Organizational Behavior 261 Gabrielle Durepos. Outline. Towards an understanding of motivation Intrinsic versus Extrinsic motivation Early theories of motivation Hedonism Taylor’s Scientific Management and Motivation

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Motivation in organizations
Motivation in Organizations

Chapter 7: 205-222

Organizational Behavior 261

Gabrielle Durepos


Outline
Outline

  • Towards an understanding of motivation

  • Intrinsic versus Extrinsic motivation

  • Early theories of motivation

    • Hedonism

    • Taylor’s Scientific Management and Motivation

    • Mayo and the Hawthorn Studies

  • Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories

    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    • Alderfer’s Existence-Relatedness-Growth Theory

    • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

    • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

    • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory

  • Conclusions


Towards an understanding of motivation
Towards an Understanding of Motivation

  • Work motivation is understood as:

    • An individual’s desire to direct and sustain energy in performing a task

    • Most described as an internal desire “to move”

  • Individual motivation is related to an individual’s characteristics

    • i.e. self-efficacy, locus of control, ability

  • There are many theories of motivation

    • There is no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ theory of motivation

  • OB theories of motivation draw on psychology literature

    • Psychological literature defines motivation as:

      • An internal process that acts in governing / guiding choices and maintaining behavior or voluntary activity over time


Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation

  • Extrinsic Motivation

    • Refers to an influence to the motivation level from external sources

    • Traditionally viewed as negative

      • “oh… you are only doing that so you can get something out of it…”

    • Limited effectiveness, short term duration

    • Has been shown to negatively affect intrinsic motivation

    • Examples – praise, salary, status, bonus

  • Intrinsic Motivation

    • Refers to an influence to the motivation level from internal sources

    • Traditionally viewed as positive

      • “I am doing this cause I want to do it…”

    • Examples – excitement about a work challenge, pride in making a difference, personal development & growth that comes from learning a new task


Early theories of motivation hedonism
Early Theories of Motivation: Hedonism

  • Refers to the belief that we actively seek out pleasure and try to avoid pain

  • Hedonism assumes that humans have “choice”

  • Assumes humans are rational in their thought process

  • Became known as the “carrot” and “stick” approach

    • http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=motivation+and+leadership&emb=0&aq=f#q=motivation%20and%20rewards%20in%20organisation&emb=0

  • Most theories of motivation are based on the concept of hedonism


Early theories of motivation taylor s scientific management and motivation
Early Theories of Motivation:Taylor’s Scientific Management and Motivation

  • Taylor is concerned with inefficiency at work due to:

    • Attitude of workers, methods of work & system of management control

       One way he redressed this was by introducing a system of motivation

  • Taylor assumes the worker as:

    • Lazy

    • Concerned only with financial rewards

    • Having a drive to work hard ONLY if rewarded financially, i.e. a piece rate system

  • This theory is based on extrinsic motivation

  • Later studies (human relations school) show that money is not the sole motivator at work


Early theories of motivation mayo the hawthorn studies
Early Theories of Motivation: Mayo & the Hawthorn Studies

  • Mayo & The Human Relations School:

    • Believed that money is NOT the sole motivator for hard work

    • Humans are motivated by the social relationships they have with other humans at work

    • Work is a key place where humans socialize

  • The study of human relationships at work is still prominent today

  • This theory is based on extrinsic motivation


Contemporary theories of motivation
Contemporary Theories of Motivation

  • Contemporary theories of motivation are more sophisticated

    • They account for many factors in the study of motivation & complexity of human behavior

  • Have been classified as:

    • Content Theories (Needs Theories)

      • All people strive to fulfill certain needs

      • Look at the “content” of those needs – what are the needs that people are seeking to fulfill?

      • Are they safety needs, self esteem needs, self actualization needs?

      • Looks at the “what”

    • Process Theories

      • Refer to the actual process by which individuals are motivated

      • What mental processes do people use to inform what they will do? How are people motivated at work?

      • Do they compare themselves with others to gauge their work efforts? Do they feel that the effort they “put in” will mirror what they “get out”?

      • Looks at the “how”


Contemporary theories of motivation content theories maslow s hierarchy of needs
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • All humans have needs which they are motivated to fulfill

  • Focus on psychological wellness

  • Human needs exist in a hierarchically structured form

  • Lower level needs must be met before higher level needs can be met

  • Those at the top (growth needs) are intrinsically motivated. Those at the bottom (basic needs) are extrinsically motivated

  • As lower level needs are satisfied, they no longer primarily drive behavior & higher needs become motivating


Contemporary theories of motivation content theories criticisms of maslow s hierarchy of needs
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Seen as too rigid

  • Individual needs not always clustered around these categories

  • Satisfying one level of needs does not always lead to the next level of motivation described

    • Some individuals may satisfy their needs in a different order

  • Little empirical research supporting the theory

    • Difficult to test empirically

  • Doesn’t explain how to motivate people

    • Specifically in low paying jobs beyond the lower level needs


Contemporary theories of motivation content theories alderfer s existence relatedness growth theory
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:Alderfer’s Existence-Relatedness-Growth Theory

  • This is a “needs theory” based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

  • Alderfer outlines three areas of needs

    • Existence (akin to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs)

    • Relatedness (akin to Maslow’s social needs)

    • Growth (akin to Maslow’s self-esteem and self-actualization needs)

  • The three levels of needs are:

    • Not mutually exclusive

    • Always present

  • Progression from one level to the next:

    • Individuals move freely between various types of needs; so existence needs to not have to be met prior to relatedness needs

    • More suited to explain complexity of human life than a linear model

  • Criticism

    • Research has not validated Alderfer’s ERG theory


Contemporary theories of motivation content theories mcgregor s theory x and theory y
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

  • Borrows heavily from Maslow in its emphasis on understanding human needs

  • McGregor believes that there are two theories of employee-management:

    • Theory X – Managers view employees as:

      • Lazy, only work hard if monitored closely

      • Akin to Maslow’s lower level needs

      • Extrinsically motivated

    • Theory Y – Managers view employees as:

      • Wanting to work hard, can be autonomous, valued strategic resources

      • Akin to Maslow’s upper level needs

      • Intrinsically motivated

      • Theory Y is sometimes difficult to support

        • Due to difficult financial times


Contemporary theories of motivation content theories herzberg s motivator hygiene theory
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

  • Theory of needs that divides needs into two distinct categories:

    • Motivators

      • Have an effect on level of motivation

      • Are intrinsic to the individual

      • Examples: the challenge of work provided, the importance of one’s contributions, achievement of personal growth

    • Hygiene

      • Do not have an effect on level of motivation

      • If not present, these have an effect on work dissatisfaction

      • Are extrinsic to the individual

      • Examples: work environment, characteristics of the supervisor, salary

  • Research on this theory has mixed results

    • Some researchers support it


Contemporary theories of motivation content theories mcclelland s learned needs theory
Contemporary Theories of Motivation – Content Theories:McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory

  • Develops a “needs theory” where needs are

    • Learned from society – people develop needs through socialization

    • Needs can be taught

    • Are not inherent – people are not born with certain needs

  • McClelland notes that there are three areas of needs 

    • Need for Power

    • Need for Achievement

    • Need for Affiliation

  • Research has shown that:

    • “need for achievement” can be a good predictor of job performance when coupled with a supportive work environment

    • Managers with a high need for power and high discipline make the best motivators

  • Criticism - can a “need for achievement” be learned!?


Conclusions
Conclusions

  • Work motivation is understood as:

    • The individual’s desire to direct and sustain energy towards performing a task

    • Most describe an internal desire “to move”

  • Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic

  • There are many theories of motivation

    • There is not one best theory of motivation

    • Some theories are better suited for certain situations

  • Human behavior is very complex

    • Can not assume that applying one theory of motivation will enable us to fully understand the process of motivation


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