An integrative approach to psychopathology
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 32

An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 349 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology. Chapter 2 Abnormal Psychology. Multidimensional Integrative Approach. Psychopathology: Biological roots Psychological roots Socio-cultural roots As opposed to one dimensional perspectives.

Download Presentation

An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


An integrative approach to psychopathology

An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology

Chapter 2

Abnormal Psychology


Multidimensional integrative approach

Multidimensional Integrative Approach

  • Psychopathology:

    • Biological roots

    • Psychological roots

    • Socio-cultural roots

      • As opposed to one dimensional perspectives


Influences

Behavioral: emotions become associated with situations

Biological: inherited traits/genetic contributions

Emotional: influences how we think about and respond to situations

Social: familial/peer influences, cultural context

Developmental: “critical periods”- we may be particularly susceptible due to developmental timing

Influences


Genetic contributions to psychopathology

Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology

  • Traits are influenced by our genetic endowment

  • Polygenetic inheritance: psychological characteristics are influenced by many genes, which interact with the environment; each gene has a very small effect


Genetic contributions to psychopathology1

Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology

  • Environmental contexts and experiences determine whether or not genes are expressed or “turned on”


Study of genes and behavior

Study of Genes and Behavior

  • Twin studies:

    • Comparing heritability estimates between identical and fraternal twins

    • Schizophrenia: if one identical twin has the disorder, the other twin has approximately a 50% chance of developing it (similar or lower in other disorders)


Brain plasticity

Brain Plasticity

  • Research: the structure and functioning of the brain is continually shaped by experience

    • Early childhood: deprivation

    • Adulthood: exposure to stress/trauma; effects of therapy/learning, etc.


Diathesis stress model

Diathesis-Stress Model

  • We inherit tendencies toward particular behavioral traits which may become activated during times of stress

    • Particular life events may trigger the symptoms of a disorder


Diathesis stress model1

Diathesis-Stress Model

  • Example:

    • Individual with a genetic vulnerability, a history of childhood abuse, and current stress in adulthood

      • These factors interact to influence the development of symptoms


Genes and environments influence each other

Genes and Environments Influence Each Other

  • Our genetic vulnerability may increase the chance that we will experience stress

    • Example: we may have a personality trait/temperament that draws us toward stressful environments and relationships, which lead to depression

    • Niche-picking: genes may lead us to “select” certain environments


Recent research genetic contributions

Recent Research:Genetic Contributions

  • Genetic contributions to disorders may be overstated in the research

    • Some undermine the importance of environments in the expression of genes

    • The critical role of early environments and experiences


Summarizing genetic contributions

Summarizing Genetic Contributions

  • Genes must always be understood in combination with environments (nature + nurture)

  • Maladaptive environments may impact us more or less depending on our genetic inheritance


An integrative approach to psychopathology

The Neuron

Fig. 3.8


Understanding neurons

Understanding Neurons

  • 140 billion neurons in the brain

  • Transmit information; chemical and electrical events

  • Neurotransmitters: chemicals affecting the brain and body; implicated in psychopathology


Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters

  • An increasingly complex picture

    • Not just “too much or too little”- neurotransmitters affect information processing

  • Psychotropic medications may block or inhibit the production of neurotransmitters, or may increase production


Overview neurotransmitters

Overview: Neurotransmitters

  • GABA (inhibitory): affects information transmission- GABA tends to reduce anxiety- anti-anxiety meds allow more GABA to attach to receptors

  • Serotonin: information processing and mood regulation- different effects depending on the area of the brain


Overview neurotransmitters1

Overview: Neurotransmitters

  • Dopamine: has a general effect, allowing other neurotransmitters to function; associated with pleasure seeking; revision to the “dopamine hypothesis”

  • Norepinephrine: does not appear to directly link to psychopathology, but works with other neurotransmitters; associated with fear responses, blood pressure, and heart rate


Neurotransmitters1

Neurotransmitters

  • New hypotheses and findings:

    • Genetic contributions may affect patterns of neurotransmitter activity, which may influence personality characteristics and behaviors

    • Environments and experiences can shape and change neurotransmitter activity over time- brain scans with patients receiving therapy


Neurotransmitters2

Neurotransmitters

  • Placebo effect:

    • The brain circuits/neurotransmitter activity change based on our expectations


Brain changes learning and experience

Brain Changes- Learning and Experience

  • Learning/experience influences the structure of the neurons and the number of receptors

  • Studies:

    • Active vs. inactive rats- active rats have more neural connections and more active brains

    • Deprivation/enrichment: brain scans of children


An integrative approach to psychopathology

Dendritic Spreading

Fig. 3.11


Lessons from behavioral and cognitive science

Lessons from Behavioral and Cognitive Science

  • The manner in which we process information shapes the learning and maintenance of certain behaviors

  • Events become “paired” and associated with each other


Lessons from behavioral and cognitive science1

Lessons from Behavioral and Cognitive Science

  • Learned Helplessness: Seligman

    • When we give up and stop trying to cope

    • In response to stress that we perceive as beyond our control

    • Based on our attributions


New research learned optimism

New Research:Learned Optimism

  • Seligman- we function better psychologically and physically when we have hope, positive beliefs about ourselves, and positive attitudes

    • The mind-body connection


Emotions

Emotions

  • Emotions contribute to the development of psychopathology

  • Alarm reactions: fight or flight responses

  • Our emotional appraisals of a situation shape our reactions (behaviors)


Emotions1

Emotions

  • Research on suppression: activates the sympathetic nervous system (responsible for fight or flight responses)

    • Suppression is linked with psychopathology


The role of culture

The Role of Culture

  • Culture shapes what we learn to fear, expect, believe, etc.

    • Example: case studies of Voodoo death

    • Cultures have difference constructions of psychopathology


The role of culture1

The Role of Culture

  • Culture shapes our constructions of gender

    • Perspectives on gender shape what we find socially acceptable

      • Example: men and experiences of fear and emotion; women and body image


Social relationships and mental health

Social Relationships and Mental Health

  • Research: the experience of social support affects life expectancy

    • Physical and mental health is influenced by the quality and extent of our social relationships

    • Research: having a pet has been shown to lower heart rate and blood pressure


The role of social stigma

The Role of Social Stigma

  • The stigma of labels can affect individuals affected by mental health problems

    • Beliefs about moral weakness and unpredictability/aggression


Developmental considerations

Developmental Considerations

  • Developmental stages and prior experience shapes the experience of psychopathology

  • Equifinality: the notion that there are multiple pathways and interacting factors that influence the development of psychopathology


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • New research findings are changing our understanding of psychopathology

  • A multidimensional perspective is needed to understand the development of psychological disorder


  • Login