Nominative the subject
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Nominative (the subject). The subject performs the verb action . Nouns have to AGREE with verbs Singular nouns use singular verbs Plural nouns use plural verbs

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Nominative (the subject)

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Nominative the subject

Nominative (the subject)

  • The subject performs the verb action.

  • Nouns have to AGREE with verbs

    • Singular nouns use singular verbs

    • Plural nouns use plural verbs

      Latin is an INFLECTED language: changing the inflection at the end of a word changes how it is used in the sentence. In Latin word order is less important than the inflected endings


Singular vs plural

Singular vs Plural

  • Singular subjects have singular verbs

    • 1st declension ends in –a

    • 2nd declension ends in –us or –r

    • 3rd declension has various endings

  • Plural subjects have plural verbs

    • 1st declension ends in –ae

    • 2nd declension ends in –i

    • 3rd declension ends in -es


The nominative endings

The Nominative endings:

DECLENSION1st2nd3rd

  • SINGULAR-a-us, -r?

  • PLURAL-ae-i-es


Nominative

Nominative

  • Subjects and complements both use the nominative case.

    • Aqua in piscināestfrigida.

    • Corneliusestsenator Romanus.

    • Materestlaeta.

  • When the nominative comes after a form of the verb “to be” it is called a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE


Accusativum aka obiectum

Accusativum (aka Obiectum)

  • The direct object receives the action of the verb. I know you.

  • The singular accusative ends in an –m.

    • 1st declension ends in –am.

    • 2nd declension ends in –um.

    • 3rd declension ends in –em.

  • Plural accusative always ends in an –s.

    • 1st declension ends in –as.

    • 2nd declension ends in –os.

    • 3rd declension ends in –es.


Nominative the subject

Describe these pictures in as much detail as you can, using the nominative and accusative cases.


Casus genitivus

Casus Genitivus

  • Used to show possessor

    • -ae / -arum = 1st declension

    • -i / -orum = 2nd declension

    • -is / -um = 3rd declension

  • Translate “of” or with apostrophe

  • It must be next to the noun it possesses (usually follows it).

  • Must be learned for vocabulary

    • Tells what declension a noun is

    • Shows the base of the word


Nominative the subject

Describe in detail one of these pictures using genitives, both singular and plural, from all three declensions.


Nominative the subject

The Dictionary Entry for Nouns

Nominative (usually singular)

Genitive (usually singular)

Gender

English meaning

soror, soror , f. sister

mater, matr , f. mother

filia, fili , f., daughter

filius, fili , m. son

ae

i

is

is

  • Tells us what declension the noun is

    • -ae = 1st declension

    • -i = 2nd declension

    • -is = 3rd declension

  • By dropping this ending, we know what the base of the noun is.


Casus ablativus

Casus Ablativus

  • Is used with Latin prepositions

    • e / ex

    • Sub

    • in

    • cum

  • Can be used without a Latin preposition (“naked ablative”). Translate using “by”, “with”, “from”, or “in”.


Casus ablativus nudus

Casus Ablativus Nudus

  • Naked Ablatives: by, with, from ,in

  • Means / instrument: answers Latin question Quo instrumento? The tool the subject uses goes in the ablative case without a preposition.

  • Time: answers Latin question Quando? Tells when the action of the sentence takes place.


Nominative the subject

  • Ablatives tell us:

  • Where (using prepositional phrases)

  • Davus in fossā stat. Geta e villā effugit.

  • What time (naked ablative)

  • Brevi tempore Cornelia est defessa. Cornelia in villā aestate habitat.

  • What was used (naked ablative)

  • Pueri puellas vocibus terrent. Marcus lupum ramo repellit.

  • In what manner the action was done.

  • Davus magnā voce clamat.


Nominative the subject

Describe these pictures using ablatives of tool, time, and with prepositions.


Praepositiones

Praepositiones

  • Prepositional phrases usually describe physical location or movement direction.

  • Prepositions are used with only two cases: ablative and accusative.

  • Most prepositions “take” the accusative. The ones we have learned are ad, per,prope, and in (“into”).

  • There are only 9 prepositions that “take” the ablative. The ones we have learned are sub, e/ex, and in (“in / on”), cum.

  • In a sentence, keep the preposition and it’s noun next to each other.


Nominative the subject

Write sentences about these pictures using as many prepositional phrases as you can.

Praepositiones ablativo serviunt.

e / ex sub cum in

Praepositiones accusativo serviunt.

prope per in ad


Vocative case

Vocative Case

  • Is used when calling someone by name.

  • It’s endings are identical to the nominative except for the 2nd declension singular:

    • -us nouns have a vocative ending of –e.

    • -ius nouns have a vocative ending of –i.

  • Watch your verb endings in sentences with vocatives. The subject of the sentence could be “you” or “y’all”.


Nominative the subject

What other case has endings identical to the vocative? Can you spot the exception?

The vocative case is used when directly addressing someone by name.

  • Quid facis, Flavia?

  • Quid facitis, ancillae?

  • Abite, molesti pueri!

  • Cur nihil facitis, servi ignavi!

  • Pater! Nuntius in villā est!

  • Senatores! Tempus est ad urbem redire.

  • Cave, Sexte! Descende, Sexte!

  • Scribisne epistulas, Corneli?


Miscellania

Miscellania

  • All nouns have gender: masculine, feminine, and we will learn neuter at a later date

  • Nouns we have met fall into 3 declensions

  • Adjectives have to have the same gender and number as the noun they modify.

    • Pater occupatus

    • Ancillae strenuae

    • Servi defessi


Verbum

Verbum

  • Verba have singular and plural endings.

  • They change number according to their subject.

  • They can be transitive and take a direct object.

  • Intransitive verbs cannot take a direct object, so don’t even look for one!


Personal endings

Personal Endings

I

you

he/she/it

we

y’all

they

-m or –o

-s

-t

-mus

-tis

-nt

  • Latin uses personal endings on its verbs instead of separate pronoun subjects as English does.

  • The Latin personal endings correspond to the same pronoun subjects that English uses.

  • A Latin verb has its subject built in to the verb. It is not necessary to have a subject noun or pronoun for a Latin sentence.

  • But most importantly….READ A LATIN VERB BACKWARDS!

nos

consulimus = we consult


Nominative the subject

Look at the END

of your Latin verb!

Read a Latin verb “backwards”

we

put on

indui

mus

mus

=

excita

s

s

=

you

awaken

intra

tis

tis

=

y’all

enter


Nominative the subject

o

mus

nt

tis

t

s

mus

s

mus

t

s

mus

tis


Nominative the subject

Do you remember these categories of verbs? Let’s give them names.

arripere

arripio arripis arripit arripimus arripitis arripiunt

portāre

porto

portas

portat

portamus

portatis

portant

timēre

timeo

times

timet

timemus

timetis

timent

surgere

surgo

surgis

surgit

surgimus

surgitis

surgunt

audire

audio

audis

audit

audimus

auditis

audiunt

1st conjugation

2nd conjugation

3rd conjugation

3rd – i conjugation

4th conjugation

Which conjugation / category do the following verbs follow?

excitāre, conspicere, docēre, agere, induere, intrāre, venire?


Imperatives

Imperatives

  • The special verb form to give a command is called an imperative.

  • The imperative verb has no subject (“you” understood).

  • Singular imperatives are used when giving a command to one person.

    • Imperatives singular are formed by dropping the –re off the infinitive form.

  • Plural imperatives are used when giving a command to two or more people.

    • Imperatives plural are formed in the 1st, 2nd, & 4th conjugations by adding –te to the singular form.

    • Imperatives plural in the 3rd conjugation end in –ite.


Infinitivum

Infinitivum

Cornelius multas epistulas scribere vult.

  • Can never be the only verb in a sentence.

  • It is usually introduced by verbs such as:

    • vult

    • potest

    • necesse est

    • amat

    • timet

    • parat

  • It is called complementary because it completes the meaning of the sentence.


Nominative the subject

  • Write a story about this picturing using the following guidelines:

  • Tell the story from the viewpoint of one of the characters, using “I”, “we”, and “you” verbs.

  • Include at least one genitive

  • Include three uses of the ablative:

    • Ablative with a Latin preposition

    • Ablative of time (naked abl)

    • Ablative of tool (naked abl)

  • Include the following vocabulary:

  • amicusfero, ferre invenio, inveniretraho, trahere bonus, bonamiser, misera absum, abestarea quamquamcum

ursus, ursi, m. bear

porcellus, porcelli, m. piglet

Ior, ioris, m. Eyore

tigris, tigris, m. tiger


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