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Simple Machines. Inclined Plane. Flat, sloped surface Multiplies force (you input less force over a larger distance) Example: Ramp IMA: length / height. Wedge. An inclined plane (or 2 back to back) that can move… thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other end

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Inclined plane
Inclined Plane

Flat, sloped surface

Multiplies force (you input less force over a larger distance)

Example: Ramp

IMA: length / height


Wedge
Wedge

An inclined plane (or 2 back to back) that can move… thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other end

Changes direction of the force (can also multiply force)

Examples: axe, zipper, knife, teeth…


Screw
Screw

An inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder

Multiples force (you input less force over a larger distance), can also change the direction of the force

Examples: screw, bottle cap (lid), curving parking ramp or road curving around a hill or mountain


Lever
Lever

A rigid bar that pivots on a central point called a fulcrum.

IMA: distance from effort to fulcrum

distance from load to fulcrum


Lever1
Lever

  • Three types of lever: 1st class, 2nd class and 3rd class. (pictures of the different lever set ups are on the last 3 slides)

  • How levers make work easier depends on which class lever is being used.

    • 1st class: changes direction, can multiply force or distance

    • 2nd class: multiplies force

    • 3rd class: multiplies distance


First class lever
First Class Lever

Input force

Output force

Fulcrum


Second class lever
Second Class Lever

Input force

Output force

Fulcrum


Third class lever
Third Class Lever

Output force

Input force

Fulcrum


Lever2
Lever

1st class: Seesaw, scissors, pliers neck

2nd class: wheelbarrow, door, nutcracker, bottle opener, foot

3rd class: hockey stick, shovel, baseball bat, arm


Wheel and axle
Wheel and Axle

2 circular objects fastened together that rotate around a common axis. The circle with the larger radius is the wheel

If input is turning the wheel: multiplies force

If input is turning the axle: multiplies distance

Examples: Steering wheel, screw driver, door knob


Pulley
Pulley

Made of a grooved wheel with a rope or cable wrapped around it.

Can be fixed, movable or block and tackle

IMA: number of segments of rope that support the load

Can change direction and can multiply force

Examples are found on:

flag poles, sail boats,

construction cranes


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