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ILO activities in the field of chemical safety. Pavan Baichoo InFocus Programme on safety and health at work and the environment (SafeWork). Presentation structure. Introduction ILO OSH information systems Chemical safety at work – ILO approach Key activities and major products

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Ilo activities in the field of chemical safety l.jpg

ILO activities in the field of chemical safety

Pavan Baichoo

InFocus Programme on safety and health at work and the environment

(SafeWork)


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Presentation structure

  • Introduction

  • ILO OSH information systems

  • Chemical safety at work – ILO approach

  • Key activities and major products

  • Inter-agency (international) cooperation

  • Conclusion

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Introduction

  • Direct relationship between magnitude of environmental pollution and world of work can be seen from major accidents

  • Release of chemicals have been identified as the cause of long-term environmental damage

  • Damage highest in agricultural, chemical and energy sectors

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Introduction

  • ILO standard setting and technical assistance in chemical safety – 1919

  • First binding instrument developed in 1921 (White lead)

  • Not only Conventions but also COPs, Guides etc.

  • ILO list of occupational diseases – diseases from exposure to chemicals

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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ILO OSH Information Systems

  • ILO active not only in chemical safety

  • Website provides iformation on all instruments, free of charge

  • Specific information on chemical safety can be accessed

  • Ongoing programme of uploading all documents free of charge on the website

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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ILO SafeWork webpage

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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ILO Chemicals webpage

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Chemical safety at work

  • ILO approach

  • Historical background

  • Activities and products

  • Difficulties in chemical safety

  • ILO response

    • Chemicals Convention (N0.170), 1990

    • GHS

    • International chemical safety cards

    • ILO chemicals control toolkit New

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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ILO involvement in chemical safety

  • White Lead Convention (No.13), 1921

  • UNEP/ILO/WHO – IPCS, 1980

  • Chemicals Convention (No.170), 1990

  • Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Convention (No.174), 1993

  • UNCED and follow-up

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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ILO activities and products

  • A series of programmes were started after Bhopal disaster in 1984

  • Technical cooperation projects (India etc.)

  • Conventions (170 and 174)

  • Codes of practice (Chemicals, Major industrial accidents, Asbestos)

  • Major Hazard Control: Manual

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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ILO activities and products

  • Training manuals: chemicals and agrochemicals

  • Encyclopaedia on OHS

  • International chemical safety cards (IPCS)

  • CIS information centres (>100 national and collaborating centres)

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Difficulties in chemical safety

  • Each chemical has a different hazard

  • Users usually cannot analyse hazards

  • Safe handling cannot be ensured without safety information

  • Information flow should be from suppliers (manufacturers, importers, distributors) to employers and then to the workforce

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Means for providing information

  • Labelling (concise information providing the intrinsic properties of the chemical on the container)

  • Chemical safety data sheets (comprehensive safety information for use on the shopfloor)

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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ILO response

  • Chemicals Convention (No.170), 1990

  • Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)

  • International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC)

  • ILO Chemical Control Toolkit

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Chemicals Convention, 1990 (No.170)

  • Targeted and specific instrument

  • Presupposes the existence of a system for assessing risks and setting limits

  • No provisions on health surveillance, recording and notification and sanctions

  • Instead, C.170 provides a system for the sound management of chemicals

  • Focussed on specific subject matter

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Key elements of Chemicals Convention (No.170)

  • National policy on chemical safety

  • Classification systems

  • Labelling and marking

  • Chemical safety data sheets

  • Responsibility of suppliers

  • Responsibility of employers

  • Duties and rights of workers

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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GHS

  • Follow-up to the adoption of C.170

  • Development of a single, globally harmonised system to address classification of chemicals, labels and safety data

  • Work undertaken under the IOMC, focal points being ILO, OECD and UN SCTDG

  • 10 years to develop

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Need for harmonisation

  • National implementation and trade requires a harmonised system for hazard classification and labelling

  • Major systems were already in use:

    • UN Transport Recommendations

    • EU Directives on substances and preparations

    • Canadian and US requirements for Workplace, Consumers and Pesticides

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Need for harmonisation

  • Requirements were different under each system, for example:

    • EU Class 1 cut off for acute toxicity was 25mg/kg (oral), whereas US systems was 50mg/kg (oral)

    • Hence al chemicals classified betweend 25 and 50 mg/kg were classified differently

  • Labels were also different (see next slide)

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Need for harmonisation

ILO

UN

  • Explosive

  • Flammable

  • Toxic

  • Corrosive

  • Radioactive

Same

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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GHS cont.

  • Adopted in December 2002

  • Designed to cover all chemicals, including mixtures

  • Provide for chemical hazrd communication requirements for workplace, transport, consumers and environment

  • Truly harmonised and universal non-binding standard

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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GHS cont.

  • Progressive implementation of the GHS will have far reaching consequences

  • Impact on national and international laws related to chemicals

  • Facilitate trade in chemicals and ease global information exchange of hazards of toxic chemicals and preventive measures

  • Table of hazard classes on next slide

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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International chemical safety cards (ICSCs)

  • Developed in 1984 with IPCS and EU

  • Contribution to recommendations made by 1992 UNCED in Agenda 21, Chapter 19 on environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals

  • Summarises essential OSH information on chemical substances in a clear and structured way

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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International chemical safety cards (ICSCs)

  • Use at shopfloor level by workers and OSH reps

  • Use by employers when providing information and instructions to workers

  • Special role in SME’s

  • 1300 ICSCs available free in 16 languages

  • 1.5 million downloads/year

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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International chemical safety cards (ICSCs)

  • Information provided conforms to C. 170 and R. 174 on safety in the use of chemicals at work

  • Not legally binding and should be seen as only an international reference to chemical safety information

  • User should verify compliance of cards with relevant national requirements

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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ILO chemical control toolkit

  • Scheme for Workplace Chemicals Control Kit designed for SMEs in developing countries

  • Work undertaken by experts from ILO, IOHA, USA, South Africa, HSE

  • Generic risk assessment based on GHS and task guidance sheets

  • Aim is to provide simple and practical means to prevent/reduce risks of chemicals

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Scope

  • Many substances used at work contain chemicals

  • Guidance should be provided to ensure safe handling

  • Does not cover process generated dusts and fumes

  • Based on the HSE’s COSHH Essentials kit

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Toolkit operation

Five stages:

  • Hazard classification

  • Scale of use

  • Ability to become airborne

  • Finding the control approach

  • Finding the task-specific control guidance sheet(s)

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Stage 1: Hazard classification

  • Determination of hazards presented by the chemicals (based on the GHS)

  • 6 hazard groups (A-E inhalation, S contact)

  • Simple 3-step reference table allows hazard group to be assigned to the chemical

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Quantity

Solid

Liquid

Weight

Typically received in

Volume

Typically received in

Small

Grams

Packets or bottles

Millilitres

Bottles

Medium

Kilograms

Kegs or drums

Litres

Drums

Large

Tonnes

Bulk

Cubic metres

Bulk

Stage 2:Scale of use

  • Determines how much is used/handled

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Stage 3: Ability to become airborne

  • Physical form of chemical affects how likely it is to get into the air

  • Solids – 3 levels of dustiness (low-pellets, medium-crystalline, high-powder)

  • Liquids – 3 levels of volatility (High-Bpt<60°C, Medium- 60°C<Bpt<150°C, Low- Bpt >150°C)

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Stage 4: Selection of control approach

  • Stages 1-3 enable the choice of control approach to be made using table

  • 4 control approaches possible: general ventilation, engineering controls, containment and Special

  • Table overleaf allows for easy identification

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Amount used

Low dustiness or volatility

Medium volatility

Medium dustiness

High dustiness or volatility

Hazard group A

Small

1

1

1

1

Medium

1

1

1

2

Large

1

1

2

2

Hazard group B

Small

1

1

1

1

Medium

1

2

2

2

Large

1

2

3

3

Hazard group C

Small

1

2

1

2

Medium

2

3

3

3

Large

2

4

4

4

Hazard group D

Small

2

3

2

3

Medium

3

4

4

4

Large

3

4

4

4

Hazard group E

For all hazard group E, substances, choose control approach 4

Control approach selection

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Stage 5: Find the task-specific guidance sheet(s)

  • General guidance sheet for each approach

  • Development of a range of simple and practice task specific control guidance sheets is planned

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Inter-agency cooperation (IAC)

  • Major part of ILO’s input in chemical safety is through IAC

  • IPCS

    • UNEP, WHO, ILO in 1980

    • Development on internationally peer reviewed chemical risk assessments as well as harmonised methodologies

    • Setting of air and water quality guidelines

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Inter-agency cooperation (IAC)

  • IOMC

    • ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNITAR, OECD, UNIDO in 1995

    • Coordinates activities of the PO’s

    • Work in 5 main areas:

      • Risk assessment of chemicals

      • GHS

      • Risk reduction

      • Information exchange

      • Capacity building

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Conclusion

  • ILO has provided impetus for the development of legal and technical instruments

  • Instruments based on scientific research, especially risk assessment and toxicology

  • Transposing scientific work into regulatory mechanisms to prevent human and environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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Thank You

Further information:

SafeWork

International Labour Office

4 rte. des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22

Email:[email protected]

Web:www.ilo.org/safework

Pavan Baichoo, SafeWork, ILO Geneva


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