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LSD. Visions and Nightmares. LSD. Chemical Name- D-lysergic acid diethylamide-25 Street Names- LSD, acid, cid, micro, micro-dot, window-pane, Vitamin-A, blotter, hits, tabs, sugar, sunshine, dose-a, barrels, heavenly blue, trip, trip-ticket, wedding-bells, liquid-a, etc. LSD.

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LSD

Visions and Nightmares


LSD

  • Chemical Name- D-lysergic acid diethylamide-25

  • Street Names- LSD, acid, cid, micro, micro-dot, window-pane, Vitamin-A, blotter, hits, tabs, sugar, sunshine, dose-a, barrels, heavenly blue, trip, trip-ticket, wedding-bells, liquid-a, etc.


LSD

  • First synthesized by a Swiss chemist ,Albert Hofmann.



LSD

  • Its hallucinogenic properties were not known until 5 years later when a small amount of LSD was accidentally absorbed by Hofmann through his skin.


LSD

  • LSD is a semi-synthetic psychedelic drug derived from the ergot fungus which grows on some plants, primarily rye.


LSD

  • Only a small amount of ergotamine tartrate is required to produce LSD in large batches.

  • For example, 25 kg of ergotamine tartrate can produce 5 or 6 kg of pure LSD crystal that, under ideal circumstances, could be processed into 100 million dosage units.


LSD

  • This is more than enough to meet what is believed to be the entire annual U.S. demand for the drug.


LSD

  • LSD manufacturers only need to create a small quantity of the substance, and thus they enjoy an ease of transport and concealment not available to traffickers of other illegal drugs (such as cannabis and cocaine).


LSD

  • Manufacturing LSD requires laboratory equipment and experience in the field of organic chemistry.


LSD

  • LSD is, by weight, one of the most potent drugs yet discovered. Both subjective reports and pharmacological methods such as receptor binding assays determine LSD to be around 100 times more potent than psilocybin and around 4,000 times more potent than mescaline.


LSD

  • Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms (µg), or millionths of a gram. By comparison, dosages of almost all other drugs, both recreational and medical, are measured in milligrams (mg), or thousandths of a gram.


LSD

  • An average LSD dose is anywhere from 25-50 micrograms. In the 1960’s when it was more widely used the doses were between 100-150 micrograms.

  • Threshold effects can be felt with as little as 15µg.


LSD

  • LSD is supplied in “hits” or “tabs”. In pure form it is colorless, odorless, and mildly bitter. LSD is typically delivered orally, usually on a substrate such as absorbent blotter paper, a sugar cube, or gelatin.





LSD

  • LSD causes an altered experience of awareness, sense, emotion, and memories for about 8-14 hours.


LSD

  • The onset is very gradual with the drug reaching its peak effects in about four hours, followed by a two to three hour peak period, and a gradual decline in effect for the next three to four hours.




LSD

  • In most doses aside from the mood altering effects, it produces hallucinations of geometric patterns, trails behind moving objects, and brilliant colors.

  • At higher doses it can produce Synaesthesia.




Synaesthesia
Synaesthesia

  • Synaesthesia is the condition where one sensory modality gives rise to another sensory modality. This results in correspondence between shades of color, tones of sound, and intensity of taste.


Synaesthesia1
Synaesthesia

  • Synaesthesia for example might allow one user to see the color red when listening to a certain sound, or a smooth surface might evoke a sweet taste. Users usually describe this as “tasting colors” , or “hearing colors”, or “tasting sounds” etc.


LSD

  • LSD was widely used as an experimental drug for therapeutic use on mental disorders such as; alcoholism, schizophrenic patients, and manic depressive states in the 1950’s and 1960’s.


LSD

  • As a matter of fact until 1966 it was provided free of charge to hospitals, and university scientists, doctors, and psychologists.

  • Both the CIA and MI6 admittedly experimented with LSD as a agent for mind control and large scale social engineering, during this time. (Project MK-ULTRA)


LSD

  • The test subjects were not informed that they were being given LSD, and had in fact been told that they were participating in a medical project to find a cure for the common cold.



LSD

  • After keeping the trials secret for many years, MI6 agreed in 2006 to pay the former test subjects financial compensation.


LSD

  • The criminalization of LSD is attributed to unauthorized recreational use by counter-culture groups in the 1960’s and 70’s. Popularized by counter-culture leaders such as Dr. Timothy Leary.



LSD

  • Since 1967 underground therapeutic, and recreational LSD use has continued in many countries supported by popular demand and black market availability of the drug. Legal experiments are still conducted in the U.S. but do not involve human test subjects.


LSD

  • LSD use is relatively uncommon in comparison with use of alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine and misuse of prescription drugs.


LSD

  • LSD is primarily used by suburban white males in their late teens and early 20s.


LSD

  • LSD is characterized by infrequent episodic use culminating in "maturing out" after two to four years.


LSD

  • Adverse health consequences of LSD are comparatively rare, with "bad trips" being the most common adverse reaction. Nonetheless, severe bad trips are one of the primary reasons people seek or need medical attention whlie “dosing”.


LSD

  • Although some health consequences may be related to length of use, size of dose, and the interaction of other drugs, there is considerable uncertainty over why LSD adversely affects some individuals more severely than others.


LSD

  • Despite dire warnings, LSD use doesn't result in mental illness and does not damage genes or chromosomes.


LSD

  • Black market LSD remains generally unadulterated, although manufacturing by-products do appear. Lower doses generally mean fewer bad trips.


LSD

  • The dosage level that will produce a threshold hallucinogenic effect in humans is generally considered to be 20–30 μg, with the drug's effects becoming markedly more evident at higher dosages


LSD

  • Estimates for the lethal dosage of LSD range from 200 μg/kg to more than 1 mg/kg of human body-weight, though most sources report that only one fatal overdose of LSD is documented, in which there were indications that 1/3 of a gram (320 mg or 320,000 µg) had been injected intravenously.


LSD

  • LSD is not considered addictive, in that its users do not exhibit the medical community's commonly accepted definitions of addiction and physical dependence. As with any psychotropic substance there is a risk of psychological dependence; however, as with most psychedelics, it is relatively low.


LSD

  • Physical reactions to LSD are highly variable and may include the following:

  • Uterine contractions

  • Hyperthermia

  • Erythrema


LSD

  • Hyperglycemia

  • Dry-mouth

  • Goose bumps

  • Tachycardia


LSD

  • Hypertension

  • Tachypnea

  • Hyperventilation

  • Respiratory Alkalosis


LSD

  • Jaw clenching

  • Nausea/Vomiting

  • Perspiration/Diaphoresis

  • Pupil-dilation

  • Salivation


LSD

  • Mucus production

  • Sleeplessness

  • Tremors

  • Cramps and muscle tension or soreness are also fairly commonly reported


LSD

  • LSD affects all receptor sites including dopaminergic, adrenergic, serotonin, nicotinic, and histamine receptors.



LSD

  • LSD's psychological effects (commonly called a "trip") vary greatly from person to person, from one trip to another, and even as time passes during a single trip. Widely different effects emerge based on set and setting — the 'set' being the general mindset of the user, and the 'setting' being the physical and social environment in which the drug's effects are experienced.


LSD

  • An LSD trip can have long lasting or even permanent neutral, negative, and positive psychoemotional effects.

  • LSD experiences can range from indescribably ecstatic to extraordinarily difficult; many difficult experiences (or "bad trips") result from a panicked user feeling that he or she has been permanently severed from reality and his or her ego.


LSD

  • If the user is in a hostile or otherwise unsettling environment, or is not mentally prepared for the powerful distortions in perception and thought that the drug causes, effects are more likely to be unpleasant.


LSD

  • LSD's primary effects normally last from 6 to 12 hours.

  • It is typical for users of LSD to be unable to sleep restfully (or at all, despite desperate attempts) until at least 12 hours have passed, and they do not feel completely "back to normal" until after getting one or two full nights of restful sleep, although they will exhibit no outward signs of impairment after the drug has worn off.


LSD

  • LSD induced states can be treated with a general approach to any other behavioral emergency. Always remember to put your own safety first.

  • Some clinicians claim treatment with Thorazine or Niacinamide can be useful.


LSD

  • However, the most effective agent is still Valium (Diazepam) or another benzodiazepine, keeping in mind that large doses 2 or 3 times the normal range may be needed before any type of sedation occurs. Maintain a close trending of V/S to prevent respiratory compromise.


LSD

  • Although LSD is generally considered nontoxic, it may temporarily impair the ability to make sensible judgments and understand common dangers, thus making the user susceptible to accidents and personal injury.


LSD

  • There is also some indication that LSD may trigger a dissociative fugue state in individuals who are taking certain classes of antidepressants such as lithium salts and tricyclics. In such a state, the user has an impulse to wander, and may not be aware of his or her actions, which can lead to physical injury.


LSD

  • LSD has a pronounced effect upon the mammalian uterus. Sandoz testing showed that LSD can stimulate uterine contractions with efficacy comparable to Pitocin (Oxytocin). Therefore LSD use by pregnant patients may lead to premature birth or spontaneous abortion.


LSD

  • There is also a commonly reported possibility of "flashbacks", a psychological phenomenon in which an individual experiences an episode of some of the subjective effects of LSD (this may be a positive or negative experience) long after the drug has been consumed and worn off — sometimes weeks, months or even years afterward.


LSD

  • There are some cases of LSD inducing or triggering a psychosis in people that were apparently healthy prior to taking LSD.


LSD

  • In Summary-

  • LSD is the most potent hallucinogen available on the street.

  • It can induce schizophrenic-like states, where a person is a danger to themselves or others

  • May complicate underlying health problems such as ACS or Anaphylaxis.


LSD

  • IV/IM benzodiazepines are the standard of care for suspected LSD induced psychosis or anxiety.

  • General supportive therapy should be used along with extreme caution as the mood swings CANNOT be anticipated


LSD

  • Remember, the LSD user has for all purposes altered their entire reality, the ethic, moral, and legal sense of right and wrong is altered at a basic chemical level. Making them capable of acting on the most bizarre impulses without consideration for their own safety or those around them.


LSD

  • Remember, STAY SAFE, it’s not only your job to care for these patients, but to go home at the end of your shift too.



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